Sugar and developing countries

Sugar and developing countries:


Protectionism is an economic policy where an economy restrains trade between other economies, these policies are aimed at discouraging imports and most of the policies used include tariffs, quotas and bans. Protectionism is aimed at protecting domestic industries from international competition.

Developing countries are agricultural countries where the economy depends on agriculture for growth, most developing countries are in Africa some of these countries are sugar producing countries include Malawi, Mauritius, Zimbabwe and Swaziland are some of the countries that produce sugar at low costs and face trade restrictions in developed economies.

According to Ricardo and Adam smith free trade is a way in which two countries would gain by trading, free trade ensures specialisation and therefore both countries would gain by trading even if one country has comparative advantage in the production of the two goods produced. The two scholars advocated for free trade and sugar protectionism has led both developing and less developing countries to loose.

Protectionism of sugar imports into the developed countries affects the less developed countries negatively and these effects are discussed in this paper.

Sugar protectionism and developing countries:

There are a number of problems that arise as a result of restricted trade on developing countries. These factors include increased poverty levels, increased debt problems, a decline in resource utilisation, lower export levels and therefore lower GDP, balance of trade, increased unemployment levels and slow economic growth.

Balance of trade:

Developing countries are mostly depend on agricultural products for exports and in turn import machinery and other capital intensive products, when they face protective policies in the developing countries they trade with then there is a high possibility that the countries will face a deficit in trade where exports will be less than imports, therefore protectionism in the sugar export market will result into increased balance of trade and also will result into the debt problem where countries are forced to finance their imports through debts.

There is also a decline in export earnings and therefore the country is affected as the trade restrictions are put in place, export earnings add up to the countries GDP levels and if the exports are lower then the GDP level of the country is lower and this means lower income to the general population of the economy.


Most developing countries will produce both for the domestic market and also for export purpose, therefore they produce surplus in order to export, when surplus is being produced for the purpose of export the developing countries experience an increase in employment not only in labour terms but also resource employment, when there is a decline in demand in the export market this results into a decline in employment levels in these countries.

Unemployment will result from the closing down of export sugar industries and also a decline in employment in sugar cane growing fields where production is labour intensive due to the low cost of labour. Therefore the protectionism policy by the developed countries will result into an increase in unemployment levels for those industries that directly and indirectly depend on sugar exports.


As unemployment increases in the developing countries then there is an increase in poverty in this countries, poverty will result from lack of jobs and sustainable growth of the economy. The only solution to achieve sustainable growth and a reduction of poverty in developing countries and this can be achieved through increased export and capital accumulation. However the restrictions on sugar exports will result into a decline in export revenue and therefore result into increased poverty.

Unsustainable growth in the economy:

A country will benefit from trading and will further experience absolute advantage in specialising and trading in that which it has comparative advantage in, most developing countries have comparative advantage in the production of sugar and this is as a result of the existence of agricultural land and also cheap labour that make the final products to be les expensive as compared to other countries, therefore if a restriction to trade in what the economy has comparative advantage then the economy will experience a decline in economic growth and the growth level will be unsustainable.

The debt problem:

Most sugar producing countries are already faced with the problem of debts, export revenue is in most cases used to repay the debts owned to international finance organisations and if there is a decline in exports then this means that the country is not repaying its debts, as a result the debt problem arises not only because of the inability to pay the debts but also an increase in debt levels in order to finance imports which are mostly machines, crude oil and vehicles which are relatively expensive than the agricultural products.

Increased dependency on foreign aid:

As poverty increases in these countries as a result of increased unemployment and international debts then the developing countries to increase their dependency on foreign aid, this results into increased under development and the increased debt problem due to unsustainable economic growth.

Increased dependency of foreign aid in government budgets is as a result of decline in the productivity of a country, less production as a result of decline export of sugar will therefore mean that the country will depend on foreign debts and aid which will lead to increased inefficiency in the entire economy.

Decline in resource utilisation:

The economy will experience a decline in resource utilisation, agricultural land used for the purpose of production of labour will no longer be utilised and therefore there will be increased idle resources in the economy which can be used for the purpose of economic development.


It is clear that protectionism on sugar imports by developed countries have negatively affected the developing countries, further the developed countries also experience an increase in their prices for sugar because they purchase domestic products that have higher prices than in the case where they would have imported from low price economies that have absolute advantage in production of sugar. In Adam smith theory and Ricardo’s theory of trade they advocated for free trade and through comparative advantage countries would gain by trading and that barriers to trade would only lead to inefficiency.


Jostling T (2003) Key issues in the World Trade Organization negotiations on agriculture, American Journal of Agriculture, 85 (3) 663-667

Keeney R. and et al (2007) Distributional effects of WTO agricultural reforms in rich and poor countries, Economic Policy, April, pp 289-337

Todaro M. (2004) Economics for a Developing World, McGraw Hill Publishers, New York

Willem H. and Richard M. (1985) International Economic Policy Coordination, Oxford University press, Oxford

Source by Charles Kelly

Economic Revial in Chile

New construction at Chile’s stalled Costanera Center, the unfinished 984 foot tall tower in the heart of Santiago’s gleaming financial district, is a highly visible reminder that even though the country‘s economy was rocked off course by the 2009 global financial crisis, in 2010 the country’s economy is already starting to recover. A billboard hanging in front of the $US600 million skyscraper, a development that is overseen by Chile’s Cencosud S.A., announces that the project is an “icon of Latin American development.”

According to Chilean press sources, on December 5, 2009 Horst Paulmann, Cencosud’s chairman, told close associates that he was ready to re-start construction on the Costanera tower. As the new phase gets under way, the project could employ as many as 3,000 construction workers by March, 2010.  On December 17, 2009 Michelle Bachalet, then Chile’s president, whose administration is widely credited with effectively managing the country’s economy both during the early boom years of her administration and during the recent downturn, attended a ribbon-cutting ceremony to mark the official re-launch of the
Costanera project.  Contacted on January 11, 2009, Alfredo Merlet, a market risk analyst at Rabobank Chile, which is located in Santiago’s financial district next to the Costanera project, explained that from the street in front of his office he can already see that workers have been called back to the Costanera site. Construction is expected to be completed by the end of 2012.

As workers are now being called back to the site, new construction on the tower can be seen as evidence that the country’s economy is emerging from recession.

According to January 2010 data from Adimark GfK, a Santiago, Chile based market research firm, Chile’s Economic Perception Index (IPEC), a measure of consumer confidence, has reached a 35 month high.

Chile, Latin America’s sixth largest economy, has long been viewed as a model of successful growth. Thomas Trebat, the former Head of Latin America Research at Citigroup, currently the Executive Director of the Institute of Latin American Studies at Columbia University in New York, explained in a recent interview that “from 1990 until 2007 Chile led the region with 17 years of solid growth.”

When the Costanera project broke ground in 2006, it was seen as a testament to the country’s successful track record and high expectations for its own future. The 7.5 million square foot project was slated to include a 12 screen cinema, a world-class hotel, and more than 300 retail stores, catering to the middle and upper income segments of Santiago’s five million residents as well as the estimated 2 million foreign tourists who visit Chile every year. The tower was designed to be a visual reminder of Chile’s goal to be classified as a developed country by 2020.

However, like many other countries in the region, Chile had its development plans put on hold by the 2008 financial crisis. On January 28, 2009 Cencosud filed a report with Chile’s securities market regulator, the SVS, stating that the company would resume construction on the project “once the economic uncertainty is overcome.”  No new work on the tower was completed as overall economic activity in the country slowed.

According to data from Chile’s Central Bank, unemployment increased by a third, from 7.6% in April 2008 to 10.2% in September, 2009. Data from, a U.K. based research group, shows that prices for copper, Chile’s main export, fell by two-thirds between April and October, 2008. As earnings from copper exports fell, the country experienced its worst recession in a decade, with GDP contracting by 2% in the fourth quarter of 2008.

As long as Chile’s economic indicators remained bleak, it was unlikely that any new work would be completed on the Costanera tower. In a telephone interview in early December, 2009, Alfredo Merlet, a market risk analyst, said, “I walk past there every day and have not seen anything new.”   Merlet explained that only when the country’s economy started to recover would work begin again on the tower.

However, despite recent lack-luster performance, many market analysts take a positive view of Chile’s long-term prospects.  Marpin Binghim, an economist and independent management consultant who specializes in Latin America, said, “Chile is the most outstanding country in Latin America in terms of macro-economic policy management in the last twenty years.”  Binghim explained that “even though there is a global crisis,
Chile has been able to tap into its rainy-day fund and smooth output, avoiding a major downturn.”

Using accounting methods that subtract the cyclical revenues that were earned from unusually high export earnings, Chile’s government ran a structural surplus of 1% in 2006, compared to a structural deficit of worth almost one fifth of GDP in Venezuela and a 4% deficit for Latin America as a whole during the same year.  Chile’s windfall copper
earnings were stored in an offshore account which eventually held US$22 billion.

Chile’s frugality during the boom years has appeared to pay off. Cameron Brandt, Senior Global Markets Analyst at EPFR Global, a Cambridge Massachusetts based consultancy, explained that “because of its stockpiled copper reserves, now Chile’s government can spend a lot of money on its stimulus package, without having to worry about when the bill will come due.”

Data from Chile’s Central Bank show that despite the fact that the country’s economy contracted by 2% in the forth quarter of 2008, in 2009 Chile has been well equipped to take immediate measures to counteract the effects of the downturn.  According to data from the World Bank, in 2009 Chile has been able to implement a stimulus package worth 2.4% of GDP.

Such measures are important, and are part of the reason why Chile’s year on year growth is expected to fall by only 1.5% in 2009, compared to a 3.2% drop for Latin America as a whole.  Contacted this week, Martin Schwerdtfeger, a Senior Economist who covers Chile for HIS Global Insight, a leading economic research firm, explained that although Chile did feel the effects of the effects of the global financial crisis in 2009 as foreign direct investment (FDI) fell by 7.4%, a US$800 million drop, during the first three quarters of the year, “the country’s total fiscal stimulus package amounts to roughly US$7.8 billion, ten times the magnitude of the drop in FDI.”

Chile’s low interest rates and continued government spending measures are expected to boost business activity, bring down the unemployment rate and help the country’s economy recover during 2010.  Luis Oganes, the Latin American research director at J.P. Morgan said that “Chile is bound to display particular dynamism in 2010” as growth picks up around the globe.   According to Martin Schwerdtfeger, the Senior Economist at Global Insight, Chile will resume growth and report a 4.5% increase in economic output in 2010.  According to a study published on Chile’s Central Bank website on January 11, 2009, the median expectation for the country’s growth in 2010 of a group of 26 economists was 4.6%.

However, although Chile has had success in countering the effects of the global downturn, there is still work to be done in other areas. Chile still has an unemployment rate of over 10% and according to data from the World Bank, ranks as one of the most unequal countries in the world. Even though Chile has been acclaimed for its region-leading efforts to improve social indicators, according to official estimates, more than one fifth of the country’s residents still live below the poverty line. Furthermore, even though Chile has been more successful than other countries in the region at diversifying its export base, its economy is still vulnerable to disruptions to the revenues it earns from exporting copper, its principal export.

Alfredo Merlet, a market risk analyst, explained that Chile’s economic troubles in 2009 should serve as a reminder that despite the country’s advancements in many areas, its “economic health still depends greatly on the price of copper.”

Still, a recent uptick in the price of copper and signs of new investment activity bode well for Chile’s future.  In 2009, Chile’s IPSA index jumped 48%. Luis Oganes, Head of Latin America Research at J.P. Morgan explained “a year after the worst crisis the region has
experienced in decades, it’s nice to see a bounce back in this manner.”

Thomas Trebat, the former head of Latin America research at Citigroup, explained even though “like all Latin American countries Chile was hit hard by the deterioration in commodity prices and decline in trade in late 2008, but the country’s economy is ready to emerge from the crisis.”

Chile has come a long way in recent decades. More or less, the country has successfully weathered the storm of the 2008 financial crisis. As Chile’s economic growth picks up it is becoming clear that Chile has laid a solid foundation for itself, and is now crafting a model framework of development for the rest of Latin America.

Source by Nathaniel Parish Flannery

The Ins and Outs of IRAs and Retirement Plans

The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 promised to deliver important benefits to nearly every American. The Act included tax-rate reductions, child credit increases, marriage penalty relief, education funding incentives, retirement plan enhancements, and much, much more. Since provisions of this act were good until December 31, 2010 with Congress having the option to extend it, it is important to understand some of the enhancements affecting Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and company sponsored retirement plans.


Contribution Increases

The annual limit for qualified contributions to both Traditional and Roth IRAs is $3,000 in 2004, $4,000 in 2005-2007, and $5,000 in 2008. After 2008, the limit will be adjusted annually for inflation in $500 increments.

Catch-up Contributions

Individuals who have reached age 50 and who meet the tax law’s adjusted gross income limits for regular contributors for the year, may make additional contributions to both Traditional and Roth IRAs in the amount of $500 for 2004 & 2005 and $1,000 for 2006 and after.

Education IRAs

The annual contribution limit for Education IRAs is $2,000 per beneficiary. The definition of qualified education expenses has been expanded to include elementary or secondary education. In addition, the income limits where contributions are phased out have been increased. Finally, the contribution deadline has been extended to April 15th of the year following the year in which the contribution applies.

Company Sponsored Retirement Plans

Employee Contributions

The annual limit for employee contributions in 401(k), 403(b), and 457 governmental plans will increase to $13,000 in 2004, $14,000 in 2005, and $15,000 in 2006. For SIMPLE plans, the 2004 annual employee contributions will increase to $9,000 and continue to increase by $1,000 to $10,000 in 2005. After 2005, the limit will be indexed for inflation in $500 increments.

Catch-up Contributions

Participants who are 50 years and older will be able to make additional contributions to their 401(k), 403(b), SIMPLE and 457 governmental plans.

Portability of Benefits

Starting with distributions made after 2001, the new law expands rollover options. For IRAs and company sponsored retirement plans, the intent is to provide further incentives for individuals to keep distributed retirement benefits in tax favored accounts and provide more flexibility as to where money can be rolled over.

Rollover Distributions

Under the new law, eligible rollover distributions from company sponsored retirement plans,

403(b) annuities and 457 governmental plans generally may be rolled over to any of the other types of plans (and IRAs) that accept such rollovers. But not all of these plans are not required to accept rollovers.


As with any investment advice you may read on the Internet, remember that laws and polocies change over time. Before actiing on in financial advice you should talk to a licensed financial advisor and make sure your are investing under the most current guidelines.

Source by John McCartin

Examples of Social Marketing – How to Influence Social Behaviors

Examples of social marketing have evolved over the years from something that used to be very costly and complicated, to methods that are free and can spread like wildfire.

Social marketing is used to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviors.  The purpose is to benefit society by spreading the message.

Critical steps to put examples of social marketing into place include knowing your:

Product/Goal – What is the belief you are communicating?

Price – What the consumer must do in order to take hold of that belief?

Delivery Method – How will people access this idea or belief?

Target audience – Who does the message need to reach?

Partnership – Can you work with a team to promote the message?

Knowing this, we can move forward into examples of social marketing to help you know what will work best for you.

One of the examples of social marketing in the last decade would be the campaign Health Canada undertook to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death in Canada.  Obviously, their goal was to decrease the risk of SIDS.  The price was laying babies on their backs to sleep.  The delivery method was through brochures, posters, and common messages from all involved in health care.  The target audience was parents and caregivers.  The partnership was between Health Canada, The Canadian Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths, The Canadian Institute for Child Health, and the Canadian Pediatric Society.  The results from this effort was an increase in awareness from 44% (in 1999) to 66% (in 2001) that the proper position to place a baby during sleep is on his/her back.  Note the years this took place.  The instant, global methods we have now, were not readily accessible then.

One of the more current examples of social marketing is of the Think Simple Now blog by Tina Su, who was able to get over 2000 subscribers to her blog in 3 months, single handedly at no monetary cost.  This is what Tina used to spread the word about her blog.  Word of mouth in person and via email, connected with readers of her blog via email, commented on other blogs, link to other blogs to create community, trust and relationship, made 5 new blogger or social media friends weekly, commented and contributed to others’ online articles.

Other free examples of social marketing that you might want to learn to implement are:
Social networking websites such as Twitter or Facebook.
Sharing pictures online that embody the message you want to get out.  Include a link back to your site at the bottom of each picture.
Sharing videos online that express your message.  TubeMogul is a great site that allows you to upload to multiple video sites at one time.
Targeting social bookmarking sites.  This allows you to tag different sites publicly so others can see your bookmarks and look at the sites you are visiting.One great site to assist you in this is

The most exciting part is that today, more than ever, we have access to unlimited examples of social marketing that we can easily apply ourselves.  It has become a global world right at our fingertips, giving us so much opportunity to influence the world with ideas and attitudes that will affect positive change.

Source by Kim Webster

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips

The recession has forced many industries to go lean in manufacturing and other areas of business and some of the businesses have successfully reinvented themselves by transforming their business operations.

Many businesses have scaled down their productions, cut down their marketing budgets and adopted strategies for reducing costs and wasteful expenditures.

A business which is based purely on the Internet for its operations is an online business,and an online business is considered to be a perfect example of a lean business model.

This is because an online business can be setup in a small room and does not need huge investments in facilities and buildings. The internet is obviously the de facto medium for advertising the online business.

However businesses advertising to assist business development and growth can become complex if the right strategies are not adopted in the initial stages.

Business management consultants and business consultancy firms provide the necessary guidelines in selecting the right advertising strategy that can be extremely helpful in increasing the market share of the business.

One of the main objectives of advertising is to increase the reach of the product, service and the brand to a larger audience and hence advertising the business on a single website may not deliver the desired results.

Depending upon the target audience, the business should choose a mix of websites and portals to advertise itself. In addition to this, strategies such a PPC or Pay Per Click and registering the business website with search engines with high rankings is also necessary.

It is also necessary to use other tools like blogs and SEO techniques to increase the visibility of the business.

Many business management consultants highlight the need for online businesses to reinvent their marketing and advertising strategies to widen their reach in a cost effective manner.

Businesses have also realized the need for change in business development strategies and many online businesses are increasingly asking their mangers to undergo business training courses which precisely address the needs of online businesses.

The breath taking leap in business trade online has led to a phenomenal amount of online research queries for information tips.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips aims to assist all business management consultants & business owners running an online business. It also seeks to assist every new and aspiring business development entrepreneur & online professional seeking online business tips. For all businesses advertising online.

Every savvy online business marketeer knows that the greatest single benefit to be gained from having a business web site online is to establish fantastic links from other highly page ranked business web sites ideally from the same industry as yours.

For this reason I have omitted link building from my top online tips list.

For any business to understand the power of free online advertising and the tangible benefits to be gained from targeting a new fee paying customer audience it is wise to understand the top 5 online business tips.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips #1

Search Engine Optimisation SEO

Business management consultants are advising all their business development managers that SEO is experiencing a massive growth in keeping with the ferocity of which the internet is developing for business owners.

Many business consultancy firms now provide SEO business training courses to assist the company online professional in running an online business. Subsequently SEO consultancy is booming.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips #2

Pay Per Click PPC

PPC is an advertising campaign generally managed by a company online professional which forms part of running an online business.

Although PPC is implemented and paid to the major search engines many business consultancy firms and a number of individual business management consultants advise and run PPC business training courses.

Every business development manager should be advised that running a PPC campaign is like walking blindfold through a minefield. It is best left to your online professional or PPC consultancy advisor, unless you have of course graduated from several professional PPC business training courses.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips #3

Pay Per Results PPR

Very few business consultancy firms or business management consultants actively promote PPR as part of running an online business and the main reason for this is that very few consultancy managers and business development directors know of its existence.

As such I have yet to come across any PPR business training courses. However speak to any smart online professional and he or she will inform you that PPR is one of the best and most cost effective marketing strategies for running an online business.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips #4

Writing Online Articles WOA

It is completely ineffective to be running an online business without writing dynamic key word and key phrase rich articles relevant to your business.

Just about all business consultancy firms and most online professional business management consultants promote WOA as a key stage in business development.

Given the speed with which one can post an online article to a global audience in cyberspace it is not coincidence that a number of online professional consultancy executives are running their own WOA business training courses.

Businesses Advertising Top 5 Online Business Tips #5

Article Submission Sites ASS

When advising business development directors and assisting them in running an online business many business consultancy firms and individual business management consultants prefer to keep article submission sites as one of their own closely guarded secrets.

However every online professional writing online articles knows the power and speed of getting your business article out to multiple readers and multiple likeminded business web sites lies in ASS. Submitting your articles to article submission sites also brings the added value of other web sites providing a valuable link back to your business web site.

There are one or two online consultancy agencies providing online article submission sites business training courses.

Source by Dr Mark Yates

What Online business is far beyond Traditional Business?

Straightforward thing that positively differs Online Business from traditional business is the technology that magnified the business itself.

Business online make earn more income online as it is built system automatically. Without a set of connections it’s utterly impossible for an electronic-business to continue to exist. Huge impact on the business way in communicating customers using the technology

Traditional Business Ideas Approach

Business ideas approach adopted by traditional business. Manual Contact is a form of communication reproduction, business ideas that the business assigns its people to recognize and accomplish the potential consumers. Sales person who calls or talk to the potential clients and sell the products offered by the company he/she belong. This system approach widely seen in all traditional business worldwide. Another Business Ideas approach in selling your products is through advertisement via media. Allowing the company to get promotions and advertisement using media tools (television, radio, news paper, magazine, etc.)

Online Business Ideas approach

Website are the basic tool in online business approach, many to many come close to that will make earn more profits. It is neither a personal contact device nor also a mass media. Mass media is allocated at the first side and personal contact at the other side It stands on the focal point of the fine line. Web provides more influential business ideas, interactivity wise than mass media. Users or searcher of internet can type their desire keywords on the powerful pipelines or search engine like Google, Yahoo, etc., and choose by clicking the products that catch their attention.

Web can bring to business at its business communication model impact that will surely raise new and outstanding barriers that need to be brought attention.

Internet provides broadcast facilities to business indeed incontrovertible to make earn residually. Have the power to force the visitors or audience to click the advertisements and generate income online. All visitors have the opportunity to build a list of product by searching the engines tool, clicking on the products they feel like. To gain attention in running an online business is also marketing strategies in increasing the rank of company via search engine are more likely. In online Business gaining high ranking is gaining high trust from the visitors.

Some facts that define the difference and advantages of Business online far beyond traditional Business, online business is inexpensive (No stall rentals, employees, fare/gas etc.) low amount of capital, accessible, no expiry, enjoying freedom by flexible time and commitment and less hours of work.

Source by maynard castro

Marketing Your Alternative Health Private Practice, Part I

Most private practice owners believe that if they are well educated and skilled in their particular field of therapy that clients will automatically flock to their practice when the doors are opened. This is simply not the case. A practitioner may have three doctorate degrees and twenty years of experience, but if that therapist is not successfully marketing his or her services, very few clients will appear. The marketing strategy in this dissertation focuses on two primary areas of private practice: (1) getting new clientele, and (2) training the mind for a successful practice. No matter how well qualified a therapist is, he or she cannot practice without clients. Successful marketing must come before successful practicing. The following strategy is a 100-day challenge, and should be the complete focus of the practitioner during that period.

Market and Niche

The first phase of successful marketing is determining the target market and the specific practitioner niche: in other words, the “who” and “what” focus of your private practice. Marketing alone is useless. Successful marketing must be focused marketing. The second phase of successful marketing is promoting “two-for-one” sessions. This strategy will significantly increase your client base rapidly. “Two-for-one” sessions is not necessarily to be taken literally. This strategy can include many ways to hook a potential client. The variety of ways to use this strategy will be discussed in detail a bit later. The third phase of successful marketing is to stay in action. Do not let one of the one hundred days pass without adhering to your strategy. Each day should bring new opportunities to implement the strategy. The fourth phase of successful marketing is to feel good about your future. The power of the mind plays a large role in how successful you will be. Chanting mantras and doing other focused activities will direct the power of your mind into the realization of a successful private practice.

Phase one in creating a successful private practice marketing strategy is defining your target market and your therapy niche. Your target market is those people who are most likely to already need your services, and are willing to pay for your services. Your therapy niche is the alternative modality you wish to practice the most (i.e. hypnotherapy, reiki, reflexology, etc). In determining these two factors, it is necessary to remember two important points: (1) People care more about their problems than they do about your treatments, and (2) most practitioners are not concrete enough in what modality they offer. It is absolutely imperative to put the client’s needs first and to be able to clearly define what it is you offer to the client. Vague marketing will bring scant results. If you take a look at very successful companies the world over, you will find one defining characteristic tying them together: they all have a crystal clear focus. They know what they offer, and they are clear in their marketing materials about their services and products. In marketing your service to your target audience, remember that passion sells better than expertise. If you love what you do, and others see that you love what you do, they are more likely to purchase whatever you are selling. Passion is contagious.

In deciding what your specific niche will be, you should choose an area based on (1) something you have passion for, (2) something you excel in or are able to learn about, and (3) something people have an existing need for and are willing to buy. Your niche should be as clearly defined as possible. Rather than marketing yourself as a hypnotherapist, a reiki master, and a feng shui expert, choose one and market that specific modality. People want to buy into something they feel certain about. If your prospective customer feels you have stretched yourself too thin, he or she will look elsewhere. Prospective customers are looking for an expert in which they can be confident. As an alternative therapist, your job is not to create a need, but to fill a need. Choose a niche with waiting customers, and market your specific ability to those customers. Finding these customers is easier than most people think. This will be discussed in depth in a later section.

In determining your target market, take into consideration the following three rules: (1) be sure you can discover where your market is; (2) be very specific about who you market to; and (3) be able to get deep into your chosen market. The first thing to do is to decide where your market is. If you are marketing your services to businessmen (such as hypno-coaching), that is a very wide market, and you may feel overwhelmed by the prospect of marketing to every business in your community. However, if you narrow down certain places businessmen gather, such as chambers of commerce or rotary clubs, and reserve speaking engagements to a group of businessmen there, the marketing becomes much easier and more targeted. Go where your prospective clients are, and offer your services to them directly. The second thing to do is to be very specific about what you do. If you address the group of businessmen by introducing your service as a way to help businessmen be better at what they do, that is too vague and not very memorable. However, if you open your presentation by saying, “I specialize in motivating salespeople to exceed their quotas each month”, then that’s something people want to buy into. The first introduction is forgettable; the second is convincing and memorable. The third thing to do is to saturate your market. This will take care of itself if your service is quality, and your marketing is well targeted. For example, if you give a focused, detailed seminar about your service to a group of businesspeople, they will tell other business friends about your service in turn. If you marketing is well planned and targeted, trickle down marketing will occur in your chosen market.


Use these questions to define your target market.

1. What is my therapeutic focus?

2. What do people say to themselves if they have a problem I can solve?

3. What kind of person wants/needs my therapeutic help (demographically)?

4. From the above questions, narrow down your target market.

One of the most important things to do before beginning your marketing campaign is to devise a mission statement. A mission statement is a clear and concise answer to the question “what do you do?” When writing this mission statement, focus on the specific problem your therapy addresses, and the results it provides for your clients. The mission statement should be no longer than two or three sentences, and should be detailed rather than vague.


Begin working on your mission statement.

Imagine being in different situation with people asking you what you do. Answer.

When writing the mission statement, it is not necessary to make it so stiff that it is unchangeable in various situations. While keeping the basics concrete, tailor the statement to the individual you are speaking to. Also, rather than using a labeled profession in your mission statement, focus on what you actually do in the therapeutic process.

Source by Paul Daniel Payne

Articles Related To Marketing Strategies

Articles related to marketing strategies can be found at the best online forums . Not only articles but also informative post . There is really no longer a need to pay for this type of information.

Take it from someone who has made money online for over ten years . 101 marketing strategies , or a lack of , is the number one cause of people not being successful online . For some reason people feel as if an online business is not a real business. They think if they build it .. they will come . They think wrong .

No matter if you are wanting to make a little extra money from Ebay or really want to dig in and make the big bucks, old fashion business sense will be your friend . Articles related to marketing strategies can point you in the direction you need to be headed . Post in the better forums can and will give you a step by step blueprint to follow .

Better be careful with the self proclaimed experts at some forums .

Some of these are really trying to help. They just do not know any better themselves . Others are trying to scam you into giving them some money . Yet others are really trying to steer you in the wrong direction and knock youy out of contention as a competitor.

Still forums are a great place to learn. The majority of members are really there to help. Moderators will usually weed out the bad eggs rather quickly . Articles related to marketing strategies on the better forums are usually read quickly by the mods . These are deleted if they are incorrect . Members will quickly come to the rescue of unsuspecting newbies if some incorrect information does slip by the moderators .

A number of post will usually be dedicated to pretty much any micro nich. The ability to ask questions and get answers from those more experienced than you , in the real time , is hard to beat . For example . If you happened to be a new internet marketer wanting to know how many emails you should send out a week, all you do is ask and someone will tell you in a matter of minutes .

Articles related to marketing strategies for offline marketing can also be found . This a a big help for huge corporations as well as Mom and Pop businesses . Many offline businesses are finding huge profiles online . The scope of new customers can make the difference in failure or success in our new economy .

Many have lost their jobs of late . Others find themselves underemployed . Both groups are finding they really can make a living profits . A good 101 marketing strategies forum is where they are learning the ropes to you success.

It always surprises me how a new marketer can come to a forum on-line as can be and in just a little while , be teaching others the basics and beyond . You too can be an expert in no time .

A true 101 marketing strategies forum is hands down the best place to find articles related to marketing strategies.

Source by joelhambit

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Marketing

Aford Infocom is your one-stop permission email marketing resource, bringing together several features of interest to both email marketers and resource owners.

As well as our search engine placement services, we can assist you with many other marketing strategies such as banner adverts, e-mail marketing campaigns, rich media products, affiliate programs, link generation and viral marketing campaigns.

What good is a beautifully designed website, if no body knows about it?

Every case is individual and not all marketing strategies will suit everyone. There is a massive difference in budget requirements between the various options available.

Our best suggestion would be for you to contact our e-marketing specialist, who will be happy to discuss the various options available to you.

E-mail marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fundraising messages to an audience. In its broadest sense, every e-mail sent to a potential or current customer could be considered e-mail marketing. However, the term is usually used to refer to:

* Sending e-mails with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or old customers and to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business.

* Sending e-mails with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing old customers to buy something immediately.

* Adding advertisements in e-mails sent by other companies to their customers.

* Emails that are being sent on the Internet (Email did and does exist outside the Internet, Network Email, FIDO etc.)


E-mail marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies because:

* Compared to other media investments such as direct mail or printed newsletters, it is less expensive.

* Return on investment has proven to be high when done properly.

* It is instant, as opposed to a mailed advertisement, an e-mail arrives in a few seconds or minutes.

* It lets the advertiser “push” the message to its audience, as opposed to a website that waits for customers to come in.

* It is easy to track. An advertiser can track users via web bugs, bounce messages, un-subscribes, read-receipts, click-throughs, etc. These can be used to measure open rates, positive or negative responses, corrolate sales with marketing.

* Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of e-mail subscribers who have opted in (consented) to receive e-mail communications on subjects of interest to them

* When most people switch on their computer the first thing they do is check their e-mail.

* Specific types of interaction with messages can trigger other messages to be automatically delivered.


Many companies use e-mail marketing to communicate with existing customers, but many other companies send unsolicited bulk e-mail, also known as spam.

Illicit e-mail marketing antedates legitimate e-mail marketing, since on the early Internet (see Arpanet) it was not permitted to use the medium for commercial purposes. As a result, marketers attempting to establish themselves as legitimate businesses in e-mail marketing have had an uphill battle, hampered also by criminal spam operations billing themselves as legitimate.

It is frequently difficult for observers to distinguish between legitimate and spam e-mail marketing. First off, spammers attempt to represent themselves as legitimate operators, obfuscating the issue. Second, direct-marketing political groups such as the U.S. Direct Marketing Association (DMA) have pressured legislatures to legalize activities which many Internet operators consider to be spamming, such as the sending of “opt-out” unsolicited commercial e-mail. Third, the sheer volume of spam e-mail has led some users to mistake legitimate commercial e-mail (for instance, a mailing list to which the user subscribed) for spam — especially when the two have a similar appearance, as when messages include HTML and flashy graphics.

Due to the volume of spam e-mail on the Internet, spam filters are essential to most users. Some marketers report that legitimate commercial e-mails frequently get caught by filters, and hidden; however, it is somewhat less common for e-mail users to complain that spam filters block legitimate mail.

Companies considering an e-mail marketing program must make sure that their program does not violate spam laws such as the United States’ CAN-SPAM Act, the European Privacy & Electronic Communications Regulations 2003 or their Internet provider’s acceptable use policy. Even if a company follows the law, if Internet mail administrators find that it is sending spam it is likely to be listed in blacklists such as SPEWS.

E-mail marketing terms


Automatic replies sent by the e-mail software of the recipient after receipt of an e-mail.

Bounce messages

e-mail sent back to the server that originally sent the e-mail.

Bounce rate

Ratio of bounced e-mails to total e-mails sent.

Bulk, bulking

Terms used by spammers to refer to their line of work. Mostly synonymous with spam or UCE.

Call to action

Words in the e-mail that entice recipients to do something.


The action of clicking on a link.

Click-through rate (CTR)

Ratio of click-throughs to total e-mails sent.

Commercial e-mail

Any e-mail sent for commercial purpose; for instance, an advertisement to buy a product or service, an order confirmation from an online store, or a paid subscription periodical delivered by e-mail. Commercial e-mail is not synonymous with spam; see unsolicited commercial e-mail below.


Characteristic of a group of e-mail recipients.

Double opt-in

A term coined by spammers to refer to the normal operation of secure electronic mailing list software. A new subscriber first gives his/her address to the list software (for instance, on a Web page) and then confirms subscription after receiving an e-mail asking if it was really him/her. This ensures that no person can subscribe someone else out of malice or error. The intention of the term “double opt-in” is to make it appear that the confirmation is a duplication of effort; and thus, to justify not confirming subscriptions. Mail system administrators and non-spam mailing list operators refer to confirmed subscription or closed-loop opt-in.

Double opt-out

Same as Opt-In, but the recipient unsubscribes instead of subscribes. Borderline spam operations frequently make it difficult to unsubscribe from lists, in order to keep their lists large. Hard-core spam operations make it impossible — they treat opt-out requests as confirmations that the address works and is read.

E-mail Blast

An e-mail sent to multiple recipients, intended to inform them of announcements, events or changes. A variety of methods can be used to send the same e-mail to multiple recipients: for example: using options within an e-mail program, using the mail merge option within a word processing program, or using a commercial e-mail list programs.

Express consent

A recipient agrees actively to subscribe by checking a box on a web form, paper form or by telephone. A recipient not unchecking a box is not express consent.

False positives

E-mail that is not spam but is labeled spam by a spam filter of the recipient. Note that e-mail marketers may have different opinions of what is “spam” than e-mail recipients.


E-mails can be sent in plain text, HTML, or Microsoft’s rich text format.

Hard bounce

Bounced e-mail that could never get through because the e-mail address doesn’t exist or the domain doesn’t exist.

List broker

Reseller of lists of e-mail addresses.

List building

Process of generating a list of e-mail addresses for use in e-mail campaigns.

List host

Web service that provides tools to manage large e-mail address databases and to distribute large quantities of e-mails.

List manager

Owner or operator of opt-in e-mail newsletters or databases. Also software used to maintain a mailing list.

Look and feel

Appearance, layout, design, functions & anything not directly related to the actual message on an e-mail.

Open rate

E-mail open rate measures the ratio of e-mails “opened” to the number sent or “delivered.” The ratio is calculated in various ways, the most popular is: e-mails delivered (sent – hard bounces) /unique opens.


The action of agreeing to receive e-mails from a particular company, group of companies or associated companies, by subscribing to an e-mail list.


A mailing list which transmits e-mails to people who have not subscribed and lets them “opt-out” from the list. The subscribers’ e-mail addresses may be harvested from the web, USENET, or other mailing lists. ISP policies and some regions’ laws consider this equivalent to spamming.


The use of technology and customer information to tailor e-mails between a business and each individual customer. Using information previously obtained about the customer, the e-mail is altered to fit that customer’s stated needs as well as needs perceived by the business based on the available customer information, for the purpose of better serving the customer by anticipating needs, making the interaction efficient and satisfying for both parties and building a relationship that encourages the customer to return for subsequent purchases.


The Privacy Act of 1974, Public Law 93-579, safeguards privacy through creating four procedural rights in personal data. It requires government agencies to show an individual any records kept on him/her; also requires agencies to follow “fair information practices” when gathering and handling personal data. It places restrictions on how agencies can share an individual’s data with other people and agencies and also lets individuals sue the government for violating its provisions.

Rental list

A mailing list that can only be used once or for a limited time. The user of the list pays the owner of the list less money than if he/she would have bought the list outright. Note that this term is usually used for lists generated by address harvesting or other means; the investment made by the list creator does not correlate with the permission of the e-mail recipients. Many firms who “rent” or “buy” a list face spam complaints afterward from persons who never subscribed.

Segmentation (or Targeting)

The use of previously gathered information to send e-mails of a particular offer to a subset of the list.

Soft bounce

A soft bounce is an e-mail that gets as far as the recipient’s mail server but is bounced back undelivered before it gets to the intended recipient. it might occur because the recipient’s inbox is full. A soft bounce message may be deliverable at another time or may be forwarded manually by the network administrator in charge of redirecting mail on the recipient’s domain. On the other hand, a hard bounce is an e-mail message that has been returned to the sender because the recipient’s address is invalid.

Spam or UBE (Unsolicited Bulk e-mail)

From the sender’s point-of-view, spam is a form of bulk mail, often sent to a list obtained by companies that specialize in creating e-mail distribution lists. To the receiver, it usually seems like junk e-mail. Spam is equivalent to unsolicited telemarketing calls except that the user pays for part of the message since everyone shares the cost of maintaining the Internet. Spammers typically send a piece of e-mail to a distribution list in the millions, expecting that only a tiny number of readers will respond to their offer. The term spam is said to derive from a famous Monty Python sketch (“Well, we have Spam, tomato & Spam, egg & Spam, Egg, bacon & Spam…”) that was current when spam first began arriving on the Internet. SPAM is a trademarked Hormel meat product that was well-known in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II.

Spam filter

Software that is usually installed in the users e-mail client, with the purpose of avoiding spam e-mail to get into the client’s inbox or at least to be flagged as such.

Subject line

It is one of the most important issues in e-mail marketing. The better the subject line of an e-mail, the better probability of being opened by the recipient.

Targeting (or segmentation)

Sending e-mails to a subset of a mailing list based on a specific filter, trying to improve CTR and/or open ratios.


The act of reporting CTR, open ratios, bounces, etc.

Trigger based messaging

Triggering a message based on an event or interaction with a previous message. Popular for customers who request more information

Unique click

During a particular period, a visitor to a website could click several times on a particular link, but during that period it is counted only as one and considered a unique visitor.

Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE)

The subset of e-mail spam that is also commercial, usually of an advertising nature, sent at the expense of the recipient without his or her permission. Sending UCE is an offense against all major ISPs’ terms of service, and is a crime in some jurisdictions.

Source by Aref Rasool Bhat

About The Hollywood Film Industry

The Hollywood film industry is an amalgamation of technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking. It generally consists of film production companies, film studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, actors, directors, and film personnel.

Today the Hollywood film industry is positioned across the world. In this 21st century, the major business centers of filmmaking are concentrated in United States, India and China. Hollywood is a district in Los Angeles, California that is situated in west- northwest of Downtown Los Angeles. Due to its fame and cultural individuality of movie studios and movie stars, the word Hollywood is often used as a connotation for the cinema of United States which is popularly known as the Hollywood film Industry.

The history of the Hollywood Film Industry probably started in the hands of D.W. Griffith when the Biograph Company sent him and his crew. They started filming on a vacant lot in downtown Los Angeles in early 1910. Soon the company decided to explore new territories to find that the region was quite friendly and enjoyable for shooting.

Therefore, Griffith filmed the first ever movie shot in Hollywood. The title of the film was “In Old California”. The movie company then stayed there for months to shoot several of their films and returned to New York.

Starting in 1913, this wonderful place came into the limelight when moviemakers started heading to the west. The first feature film made in Hollywood was called ‘The Squaw Man” This resulted in the birth of Hollywood Film Industry.

Nestor Studio, founded in 1911 was the first movie studio in Hollywood. Fifteen other small studios also settled in Hollywood. Gradually, Hollywood came to be so powerfully associated with the film industry that this term began to be used as a synonym for the entire industry.

During the time period of the first World War, Hollywood become the movie capital of the world. Previously mentioned, Nester studio became the Hollywood Digital Laboratory. By the year 1950, music recording studios and offices began moving to Hollywood, though much of the movie industry remained there.

The world famous Hollywood Walk of Fame was constructed in the year 1958 and the first star was placed in 1960. The Walk of Fame was placed as a tribute to the artists working in the entertainment industry. It is embedded with more than 2,000 five pointed stars featuring the names of celebrities, as well as fictional characters.

Self-financing Hollywood Historic Trust maintains this Walk of Fame. The first star to receive this honor was Joanne Woodward. The artist received a star based on career and lifetime achievements in motion pictures, live theatres, radio, television, and music.

The famous Hollywood symbol, originally read Hollywoodland, was constructed in the year 1923 as an advertisement of a new housing development. The sign was left to worsen until in 1949 the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce repaired and removed the last four letters.

The sign located at Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark hence cannot be used without the permission of the Chamber of Commerce.

The Hollywood Film Industry can be called the Mecca of film industries. Though geographically it is located in Hollywood, it resides in the hearts of millions of film lovers and film related personalities. Hollywood remains and will remain a king, without a scepter.

Source by Victor Epand