How To Make A Business Letter

Business Letter is one of the formal letters commonly used for typical, employment-related and business proposal purposes. These format has a simple guidelines and easy to make variations to writ letter as fast and easy while delivering sufficient words in a perfectly way without confusing the reader.

The Business Letter is one of the most commonly used formats for writing a typical, employment-related and business proposal issues. Some of the letters are disorganized and confusing to read. This full block business letter features a formal component and the variations are commonly customized. The words in here are sufficient and the communication will deliver a perfect way.

Here are the guidelines on how to write and compose a simple and easy yet understandable letters that brings adequate words in a comprehensive way without confusing the recipients.

The First Heading must be containing your name, address, phone, date today, email address and a reference line.

The Reference Line must have a recipient’s request information, job reference and invoice number.

The Certified Mail is often not in used to some but if you want to have at least, you may include if it is an airmail, special delivery or certified mail.

The Second Heading must have the name and address of the person or company to whom you will send your letter. Four lines are the standard lines to complete your second heading.

The Attention Line contains the name of the person whom you are sending the letter.

The Salutation Line shows respect to the name of the recipients. The most ordinary and common salutations are

• Ladies
• Gentlemen
• Dear Sir
• Madam
• To Whom It May Concern

The Subject Line is a concise topic involving your purpose in writing a letter. It may be a Resignation Letter

• Letter of Reference
• Letter of Inquiry
• Completion Letter
• Proposal Letter
• Complaint Letter

The Body of The First Paragraph states the main point of the letter. Begin with a friendly and nice opening. Then, quickly translate into the purpose of the letter. Use two couple of sentences to make clear and explain your purposes but never go into the detail because it’s too early to relate the main idea.

Begin the Second Paragraph stating a support idea to justify your purpose. These may contain the form of background information, statistics and first hand accounts. A few short paragraphs are enough to support your reasoning.

In the Closing Paragraph, restate your purpose and site why it is important. Think about closing with gratitude for your informational purposes.

The Complimentary Close includes a degree or tone of formality. Such as:

• Respectfully your – for very formal type of letter
• Very Truly Yours – for polite and neutral kind
• Sincerely – for less formal and typical type
• Cordially – friendly but informal arrangement type of a letter

The Signature Block is exactly your name. Sign it below your name.

Here are the tips in writing a formal letter

1. Don’t ever type the brackets. The brackets should have a component text indicated as replacement.

2. Keep your letters in one page. Type page 2 texts if you have a continued pages.

3. Make a space between lines so your letter won’t look overcrowded and untidy.

4. Have the same goes margins. For short letter, you may have one and one-half inch. For Longer letters that are standard should have a one-inch margin. If there a letterhead, the positions of the words are determines the top margin.

5. Don’t leave space if you don’t type the more formal components.

6. Pick a good quality of paper because this may represents the value of your personality.



Source by David H. Urmann

How to Make Money in the Golf Industry

The golf industry is a multi-billion dollar market with a global presence. It is responsible for the employment of many tens of thousands of people around the world, and it provides pleasure to millions who love to play or watch the game of golf.

From the management of international golf clubs to the sale of golf-related products, there is a vast array of business opportunities to be found in the golf industry. If you own or manage a business related to the golf industry then you’ll already know what it takes to stake a claim to a share of this market.

However, if you’re just starting up a golf business or perhaps your golf business is not generating the revenue that you originally envisaged, your next (or first) move should be to power-up some joint ventures.

The Power of Joint Ventures in the Golf Industry

Joint ventures is a very powerful concept in any business of as many business opportunities are found in the golf industry. In the golf industry joint ventures can boost sales, create multiple streams of income, help you launch a new golf product and provide you access to a greater proportion of your target market. Not only will joint ventures propel your golf business towards success than knows no bounds, but they give you the potential to achieve personal wealth too!

So, just how do joint ventures work in the golf industry? Here are some suggestions on how joint ventures can generate massive growth for you and your golf business.

1) Sell another company’s golf products: Why not utilize the customer database that you have and arrange a joint venture to sell another company’s golf-related products to your clients in exchange for a share of the profits? This way you expand your product range and this gives you the potential to generate more revenue with minimal effort.

2) Sell your golf products through another company: Joint ventures work the other way round too! Why not establish joint ventures where other companies sell your golf products for a slice of the commission? This way you could break into new geographical markets with your golf products and access more clients.

3) Swap resources: Joint ventures can provide your company with access to resources owned by other companies. These ‘resources’ could be anything from manpower and sales know-how to storage space and state-of-the-art machinery. Basically, anything you need to maximize your sales efforts. In return you could offer the company access to your customer database or advertising space on your web site.

4) Diversify: All successful companies do it! Diversification, whether through product range or customer type, is the key to long-term business success. Joint ventures allow you to find business partners through whom you can bring diversity to your business.
It not only provides pleasure to millions who love to play the game of golf but also gives you the potential to achieve personal wealth too!



Source by Navneet

What is an Economic Recession? – Erik Johnson

Economics is the science that primarily deals with the making, sharing and utilization of goods and services that a society produces. In fact, the most interesting aspect of economics is that it affects almost every walk of life, be it political, social or financial. Economic growth is very important for any country as it basically relates or acts as the pillar of the country. Now, if there is a decent economic growth, it usually defines that the businesses in the country are earning a good profit. And adding to this, it even shows that the rate of employment is high and the nation is strong on forex reserves. However, the reality of other side of the coin is that the economic growth can’t always remain unaffected. The economy of any country too goes through a cycle of ‘peaks’ and ‘troughs’ that constitutes the ‘Economic Cycle’ and this basically relates to “Economic Recession”.

Today an economic recession can generally be referred as a downfall of commercial activities over an extended period of time. Though, this duration is basically connected with a radical crash in the Gross Domestic Product, it can also be considered as a phase that basically emphasize on budgets and essential capacity-utilization alteration. During this phase, strict business-contractions take a toll on a country’s financial system, over a constant period of time. Apart from all these, this period is exemplified by the presence of macroeconomic deviations and a severe fall in the business profits and personal income. Moreover, other than Gross Domestic Product growth, elements like the current national unemployment rates, consumer self-belief and their level of spending are also measured while deciding whether the financial system is going through a recession or not.

What makes an economic recession a serious issue for any country is that during a recession, the government generally implements macroeconomic policies like raising the supply of money and in return decreasing the taxation. However, in the US economy, the Federal Government resorts to lessening the Federal Funds rate to revitalize the slow growth of economy. During the reviving the economy, basically the interest rates are decreased by the supervisory body to pull business and aid people to borrow money at a reduced level. However, the best part of a recession is it even provides numerous opportunities to view the competence of government machinery and further review its expansionary macroeconomic policies.

Along with its drawbacks, an economic recession also offers a number of benefits. No doubt, in adversity there is always an opportunity and perhaps the same rule applies with an economic recession. The period actually enables the evaluation of the efficacy of a community crisis management and budget plans. Besides this, for individual or unit, like a family or society, this period even provide an opportunity to re-work on the previously designed survival strategies and create new ones in order to test the onset of economic disorder. Adding to this, it is a time, when entrepreneurs are able to sift the innovative from the fair-weather employees. New investors benefit from buying low and selling high. And, the same approach relates to the ground of real estate. Perhaps, you must not surprise to see that homeowners taking gain of the marketplace and job loss situation, and getting property renovated.

Thus, on a broad positive note and more on psychological aptitude, this is a period when downturn fuels to turn as volunteer and leads to emotional healing. In fact, one cannot deny that an economic recession makes an individual and the government machinery of a nation wiser. Consequently, it results to the employment of management strategies and necessary decision-making in good times.



Source by Erik Johnson

The Aussie Economy: Tough Times are Coming

And there were echoes of that US economists’ survey in some of the new forecasts and commentary from the National Australia Bank about the coming year.

In its first report of 2009 the National Australia Bank downgraded Australia’s economic outlook, forecasting a shallow recession, a sharper rise in unemployment, official interest rates cut to 2.5% in the September quarter and a budget deficit hitting $40 billion next year.

The bank said it expects the  economy will contract by a quarter of one per cent on average this year, and there won’t be any growth rebound in 2010 when the economy is expected to edge back into positive territory

The bank’s latest business confidence and conditions survey picked up a small upturn in both areas last month, thanks, it seems, to the government’s spending package.

But it’s not confident that upturn (which was from under the bottom of the barrel to merely the bottom of the barrel), will be long lasting, except perhaps in the housing sector.

The NAB said that despite avoiding the worst of global carnage in late 2008, Australian GDP forecasts have been cut significantly in light of global developments, notwithstanding aggressive policy responses.

The December reading on confidence/conditions was better than the nasty November outcome when the index fell to levels lower than those associated with the 2000 domestic slowdown.

Conditions in November were the weakest since the 1992 recession, but the NAB commented in yesterday’s release that “the level of -20 is little better than the bottom of the 1990 recession”.

“For 2009, we expect GDP to shrink by 0.25%- with a number of negative quarters during the year. As such the forecasts imply (moderate) recession in 2009. With no recovery till late 2009, the 2010 GDP forecasts have been lowered to 1% (0.25% for 2009/10).”

The NAB had previously forecast 2009 growth at 0.50% and 2010 growth at 1.75%.

” For non-farm GDP that equates to a small fall of -0.25% in 2009 and a rise of around 1% in 2010. In financial year terms we expect GDP growth of 0.8% in 2008/09 but only 0.25% in 2009/10.”

The bank said that when an economy shrinks over a 12 month period “that clearly represents a recession”.

“That said, the forecasts imply a relatively mild Australian recession – especially compared to falls in growth of around 2% in the major industrialised economies.”

The Japanese economy is expected to contract by 2% this calendar year, Singapore by up to 5%, the UK by nearly 3% and Germany over 2%.

The US will contract by 3% or more according to most surveys but we will get a better idea on Friday when the first estimate of 4th quarter GDP is released.

The world economy is going to grow by just around 0.5%, according to a report from the IMF later this week.

The NAB emphasised that it sees “no fast recovery in Australian activity” for a while.

“That is, the path of growth is more U than V shaped – with recovery not really getting underway till 2010.

“This shows up most in the financial year forecasts and especially that for 2009/2010 (growth of o.25%).”

The NAB said its forecasts include cash rates falling to 3% from 4.25 % at the moment (The RBA board meets next Tuesday).

“But the deterioration in the labour market will see further rate cuts (2 x 0.25% in the third quarter).

“We also expect further aggressive fiscal policy stimulus in 2009. The difference in the outlook for the private and public sectors is illustrated by noting that the forecasts include:

“Private demand falling by around 1.5% in 2009 and flat in 2010; and public demand increasing by around 6% in 2009 and 5% in 2010

“That implies worse fiscal outcomes (a deficit of around $40 billion in 2009/10) and a sharply deteriorating labour market (unemployment reaching 7%).

“With inflation likely to be negative in Q4 2008 (figures out tomorrow) and wage pressures stalling, we see core inflation back in the RBA target range by the second half of 2009.”

The Producer Price Index for the December quarter and 2008 were released yesterday, showing a rise of 1.3% in the final stage of production, down from 2% in the September quarter.

That was still well above most forecasts, with the market consensus for a rise of 0.3%.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics commented that the sharp fall in the value of the Australian dollar had a big impact with “imported commodities were impacted by exchange rate driven price increases” which offset a 29% fall in the cost of oil and oil products.

With its dramatic downgrades, the slight upturn in December confidence and conditions registered in the NAB’s survey looks interesting, but irrelevant.

“The December Survey provides evidence that the Government’s fiscal spending initiatives improved business conditions and confidence in the month – with the largest bounces in retail, wholesale and the discretionary spending parts of the service sector.

“That said, not all sectors saw improved conditions – with significant deteriorations continuing in mining, manufacturing, transport and to a lesser extent construction.

“Despite the significant bounce reported in the month, the overall level of confidence and business conditions are still very low and in trend terms still declining.

“Clearly the critical question is whether the December reading represents a turning point from overly pessimistic recent readings – especially for business confidence which is still around levels last seen at the bottom of the 1990/91 recession – or a temporary bounce that is unlikely to be sustained.

“Unfortunately there is much in the Survey to point to the latter outcome – or at least that is the way business is positioning themselves re employment and business investment.”

The NAB said its recently introduced measure of credit availability suggests an easing in those respondents reporting tougher credit availability (17% vis-à-vis 27% in November).

“With 39% of respondents reporting no need for credit – up from 30%), the results point to a lack of credit demand being the main problem, rather than credit supply.”

The bank also cut its global growth forecasts for 2009 – to only 0.25% (from 1.7%).

“These forecasts take on board dreadful economic numbers reported globally in late 2008 as financial disruptions spread to the real economy – notwithstanding aggressive rate cuts by central banks.

“In the USA, Japan Europe and the UK falls in GDP of around 1% appear to have been recorded in Q4 2008.

“Given the lags from wealth destruction, rising unemployment, falling commodity prices and falling business and consumer prices, all these economies, are unlikely to bottom before late 2009 – and record falls in GDP of around 2%.

“That coordinated slowing has spread to Latin America (commodity prices) and Asia (trade) – with Chinese growth lowered to 6.25% and non-Japan Asia to -1.25%. The resultant 2009 global GDP outcome of only 0.50% the worst since WW2.

“A moderate recovery is expected to start in late 2009 into 2010 – with annual growth in 2010 at, a still below trend, 2.5%,” the NAB said.

IMPORTANT: AIR reports about financial markets and investment products in the widest sense possible. The AIR website and all its contents is prepared for general information only, and as such, the specific needs, investment objectives or financial situation of any particular user have not been taken into consideration. Individuals should therefore talk with their financial planner or advisor before making any investment decisions.



Source by Australasian Investment Review

GDP- The best single measure… Really?

The measure „GDP‟ was invented by Simon Kuznets. He later went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1971 for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insights into economic and social structure.

There are some sources that indicate other economists created GDP, for example Keynes. I suppose it doesn‟t really matter who did it first, what is really important here is the fact that GDP was invented in war times to gauge the overall economic capability of the nation.We could say that GDP was designed to be a weapon against your enemy; in this case the enemy was Nazi Germany. It was designed to prove that the US was on the top of the situation.

Simon Kuznets later warned in his first report to the U.S. Congress back in 1934 that “the welfare of a nation can scarcely be inferred from a measure of national income.”He clearly stated not to use GDP as a gauge of well-being of the nation or any indicator of the health of the economy. It is dangerous. It has not been designed for that purpose.

The comforting distortion; Increases in the gross domestic product (GDP), signify a healthy, growing economy”

The disturbing reality; The GDP is too full of fluff to be an accurate measure of economic health and growth”

Peter Schiff (Crash Proof 2.0)

The gross domestic product -GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.

It is often positively correlated with the standard of living. The measure gauges an economic state of the given country using a simple principle – for every seller there must be a buyer. Following this simple idea, GDP counts every single money transaction in the economy ANYWHERE!

Well…That‟s easy.

We can express GDP equation by

Y= C + I + G + (Ex-Im)

Where;

Y = GDP

C = Consumption

I = Investment

G = Government Purchase

Ex = Exports

Im = Imports

C – Consumption.

Household spending on durable and non-durable goods. Tangible and nontangible things we all need every day to survive. This includes everything from a haircut to a new BMW5. This section covers our human needs and desires we spend money on. Everything we buy on the open markets is counted in the consumption box.

Yeah…It is all cool so long as we don‟t put in on a credit card i.e. pay for it with borrowed money.

We often see consumer spending indexes increasing and we think that an economy is growing. Spending is not growth; it is a consequence of economic growth. If we borrow money to finance the consumption, we take it from the future, so we have less to spend in the future so it is not a growth at all. If we spend the money we have saved – then we see genuine spending of the excess money and contribution to the economy. We don‟t have to pay it back in the future with interest and our well-being increases over time. We have more goods and services we can enjoy.

There is one exception to the consumption category – house purchase.

If you buy a new house, the transaction goes to another box called an investment.

The question is; how is the house purchase an investment these days?

We all need a roof over our heads. As we need food to eat and cars to drive. A new BMW is not an investment but consumption.

In my opinion the overall approach for the last number of years that a house is an investment brought us to the edge of total collapse. With excellent help of western governments keeping the interest rates artificially low gave an incentive to the market to “invest” in real estate. We all know the housing bubble story and how it ended up.

Maybe we should put it in „consumption‟ next time we revise the GDP?

I –Investment.

All the money we invest should produce an income in the future or should produce more goods and services. It is the sum of all purchases of capital investment in land, equipment, inventories and structure in our economy.

This is the most important part of the equation. This is the core of the economic well-being and the healthy economic future of the nation.

The healthy and wise investment means to allocate the resources in the most efficient way so it can produce more goods and services in the future. Once that is done we can use the profits to further explore opportunities and free up our time to work less and rest more or work more efficiently, improving overall well-being.

That is the real well-being and the goal of the economy driven by healthy forces of free market capitalism!

Guess what? The housing appears here!

Remodel your kitchen or convert your attic on your so called “real estate investment” and the overall well-being of the nation goes through the roof! The market value of your house rises and you are wealthier so you can buy more pints on Friday night in the local pub. No worries at all!

A house is not an ATM machine that we can remortgage every time we need cash. It is not an investment that will produce more goods and services that we can consume in the future.

I think we all learnt the hard way not to treat real estate as an investment.

Besides it was not your money that you bought the house with. It belongs to the bank, all mortgages are guaranteed by government, and government borrows money from bond holders.

How is that investment? How is that well-being?

They are all bankrupt now and your house is worth half the money you paid for it…

G – Government purchase

This is the sum of government expenditure on final goods and services. It includes salaries of public servants, purchase of weapons for the military, and any investment expenditure by a government. It does not include any transfer payments, such as social security or unemployment benefits, these are called “transfer payments” and are all excluded.

Here we can talk about all the stuff the government buys with our hard earned money.

As we all know the government is the worst to allocate resources wisely. The public sector do not have an incentive to make money in order to stay afloat in the same way private business does. Therefore government expenditure will be stripped of any free market supply and demand concepts. All they need are the bonuses and pay rises. The examples are everywhere. Moneenageisha roundabout in Galway is one of them. Such a waste of taxpayer‟s money. It is not an infrastructure improvement, it‟s a joke. How does this kind of government spending improve our economy?

The other great example would be the education system or social welfare system in the US, total disaster has yet to show its teeth. The worst thing about this is that every euro spent by the government is a wasted euro and also this euro does not go to the investment category and it will never be used to produce more goods and services to improve the economy. Now the Irish businessman has a euro less to invest.

This box can‟t be any good for overall well-being of the average Paddy.

Well – again. Government is bankrupt…

(Ex-Im)

A net export is expressed by exports minus imports.

This is the second most important part of the equation. It shows the difference between the stuff we produce and sell to other economies and the stuff we had to import because we do not have resources or a competitive advantage to make it but want to consume it.

Coming back to the basics of the economy;

Principle number 8;

“An economy‟s standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services”

Putting it simply, we as a nation have to sell things (exports) to generate revenue. The more stuff we sell the wealthier we become. It‟s simple. China is the best example of that principle.

The more exports the economy can produce, the more competitive it is on the international stage and the more business it attracts.

The more competitive the economy is the more jobs it can create and more wealth is to be distributed.

The important thing to point out here is that the greatest economies are the ones with a minimum of government and regulations.

The freer the economy is the more competitive it becomes as there is no bad resources allocation by government bodies and the capital is used in a much more effective way. And again China and Singapore are the best examples.

But GDP as a measure of national exports do not even include important facts about the real imports versus exports.

Let‟s talk about the US.

Dell an American well known manufacturer of computer devices has most of its production outsourced in Asia. They assembly and send all final goods back to the US market – GDP counts it as an import despite the fact that DELL is an American organization.

Toyota manufactures cars in US and then ships it to the market in Great Britain – American GDP counts this as export, despite the fact that Toyota is not a US owed company.

As we can conclude the above and come back to the core sentence that GDP is “The best single measure of economic well-being of the nation” we can say that it is probably far from it.

There are also other things to consider that GDP do not count properly as;

 Income distribution – A small percentage of the population controls the majority of wealth. Well-being? I don‟t think so.

 Black market activities – illegal transactions still impact economies. Columbia‟s drug exports are probably the main source of income.

 Household transactions such as childcare, elderly care, volunteer‟s work opportunity costs etc. – money changes hands- not recognised by GDP.

 National disasters (Australian floods, hurricane Katarina clean-up bill, oil spills will add to GDP)- The economy do not benefit from natural disasters right?

 Natural resources depletion – Shortages of commodities used to produce goods and services are not accounted in GDP, although diminish the economy.

There are also other aspects to consider like the level of national debt, national savings, ratio between production and consumption (normally 70% consumption and 30% production).What if the consumption is financed by borrowed money and government spending (G) comes from bond market or printed money and not from genuine investments. Is that a growth? IMF Irish bail out money will probably add to national GDP. How is that improving our economy?

Yet despite all this misinterpretation, manipulation and fluff, GDP is widely used to gauge economic growth. Outrageous debt levels are justified because they are in line with historical percentage relationships to GDP.

If the economy does not produce anything and finances its consumption with borrowed or printed money and it consumes imported goods only – it will not go far.

Just take a look at trade accounts or trade balances of the US, study US national debt levels, US GDP and compare it to the deficits they run. Watch closely the national treasury rapidly rising yields; you will probably see that that party will be over soon, as it was for Ireland.

It is a Simple accounting aspect of liquidity. All companies unable to fund themselves go bust very quickly. The Same rule applies to governments.

And once that light is gone, the Irish exports are gone too.

Maybe the time has come to revise the way we measure economic growth and our own well-being?

The recent history has proven that this model might not work and perhaps we should learn economics from the Chinese?

NUIG



Source by Roman Sadowski

Global Infrastructure Growth

A nation’s infrastructure development plays a significant role in its economic growth. A fast growing economy warrants an even faster development of infrastructure. Any discussion about India’s infrastructure has to briefly cover the planning carried out for the country’s infrastructural growth, since Independence. Along with Independence, India inherited famine and poverty from its colonial rulers. There was dire need for infrastructures like housing, health facilities, education, roads, power, irrigation projects and drinking water facilities for millions of underprivileged people. This called for proper economic planning. So many steps have been undertaking for the infrastructural growth of nation. Many industrial cities are being set-up across the country. Performance of physical infrastructure in Indian economy in last one and half decades has been mixed and uneven. Over years, India’s soft infrastructure grew much faster than the hard infrastructure. For example, India’s rising trade has been reflected in growing container port traffic, which increased from less than a million in 1991 to about 5 million in 2005 with an annual growth rate of about 266 percent since 1991. In contrast, hardware components, like railways, roadways and airways, witnessed little expansion in last one and half decades. In general, performances of these sectors (hardware) are nevertheless poor, when counted their densities in terms of country’s surface area or population. Densities in terms of access or spread of rail and road length clearly indicate that road sector has been successful, compared to railways, in spreading the network as 107well as providing an access in the economy. What follows is that software part of India’s physical infrastructure (like telecom, air, and port services) performed well, thus not only helped the country to maintain a faster growth, but also integrated the economy with the world market at a faster pace. At the same time, the hardware component of the country’s physical infrastructure (e.g. road, rail, power) comparatively grew slowly, thus negated the country’s development process. Therefore, in order to unleash India’s full potentials, development of hardware component of India’s physical infrastructure perhaps deserves utmost attention. This also indirectly indicates high investment potentials in roadways, railways, power, and the associated components in India.

Urban Infrastructure

Urban infrastructure consists of drinking water, sanitation, sewage systems, electricity and gas distribution, urban transport, primary health services and environmental regulation. The process of urbanization has gathered considerable momentum in recent years and this has put urban infrastructure and services under severe strain. Urban transport urban transport is one of the key elements of urban infrastructure. The major objective of urban transport initiative is to provide efficient and affordable public transport. A National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) has been formulated with the objective of ensuring easily accessible, safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable mobility for all.

Special Economic Zones (SEZ)

SEZs are designated duty-free enclaves with developed industrial infrastructure. These zones are regarded as foreign territory for the purpose of duties and taxes, and are 121excluded from the domain of the custom authorities to enjoy full freedom for the in and outflow of goods. SEZ units enjoy a tax exemption for seven years: 100 percent exemption in first 5 years, and 50 percent in the remaining 2 years. They have the facility to retain 100 percent foreign exchange earnings in Export Earners Foreign Currency Exchange accounts. All SEZ units are free to sell goods in the domestic tariff area (DTA) on payment of applicable duties.

Public Private Partnership (PPPs) in Infrastructure

Government is actively pursuing PPPs to bridge the infrastructure deficit in the country. Several initiatives have been taken during the last three years to promote PPPs in sectors like power, ports, highways, airports, tourism, and urban infrastructure. Under the overall guidance of the Committee of Infrastructure headed by the Prime Minister, the PPP programme has been finalized and the implementation of the various schemes is being closely monitored by the constituent Ministries/Departments under this programme.

Viability Gap Funding in Infrastructure Projects in India

An investment of about US$ 493 billion would be required in the infrastructure sector during the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2011). These investments are to be achieved through a combination of public investment, PPPs and exclusive private investments, wherever feasible. According to the Government of India (2005), the Viability Gap Funding (VGF) or Grant means a grant one-time or deferred, provided under this Scheme with the objective of making a project commercially viable.

Proximity to the metro city, affordable property prices, fast-developing infrastructure and the availability of spacious and quality residential spaces are the key factors driving the growth of these towns and suburbs. And one such region is Bhiwadi. Bhiwadi Infrastructure growth is the fast developing town in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. It is a census town, which refers to town with minimum population of 5000 with at least 75% male engaged in non- agricultural activities. According to the 2001 census, the total population of Bhiwadi is 33,830 with 63% of male and 37% of female population. Bhiwadi is often referred as the Gateway to Rajasthan as it is located on the border of Rajasthan and Delhi.

Explore Bhiwadi through Bhiwadi Business Directory



Source by Ayush

Fibonacci and Golden Ratio

The Fibonacci numbers Golden ratio can be used to describe the proportions of everything from nature to the smallest building blocks, such as atoms, to the most advanced patterns in the universe, such as unimaginably large celestial bodies. Nature relies on this innate proportion to maintain balance, but the financial markets also seem to conform to the Fibonacci Numbers “golden ratio.” Here we take a look at some technical analysis tools that have been developed to take advantage of the Fibonacci Numbers Golden Ratio.

The Mathematics
Mathematicians, scientists, and naturalists have known the Fibonacci Numbers Golden ratio for years. It is derived from something known as the Fibonacci sequence, named after its Italian founder, Leonardo Fibonacci (whose birth is assumed to be around 1175 AD and death around 1250 AD). Each term in this sequence is simply the sum of the two preceding terms (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, etc.).

But this sequence is not all that important; rather, it is the quotient of the adjacent terms that possesses an amazing proportion, roughly 1.618, or its inverse 0.618. This proportion is known by many names: the golden ratio, the golden mean, PHI, and the divine proportion, among others. So, why is this number so important? Well, almost everything has dimensional properties that adhere to the ratio of 1.618, so it seems to have a fundamental function for the building blocks of nature.

Prove It
Take honeybees, for example. If you divide the female bees by the male bees in any given hive, you will get 1.618. Sunflowers, which have opposing spirals of seeds, have a 1.618 ratio between the diameters of each rotation. This same ratio can be seen in relationships between different components throughout nature.

Try measuring from your shoulder to your fingertips, and then divide this number by the length from your elbow to your fingertips. Or try measuring from your head to your feet, and divide that by the length from your belly button to your feet. The results the same, somewhere in the area of 1.618. The fibonacci numbers golden ratio is seemingly unavoidable.

So we then transalate this to finance and stocks. The markets have the very same mathematical base as these natural phenomena. Below we will examine some ways in which this ratio can be applied to finance, and we’ll show you some charts to prove it.

The Fibonacci Numbers Golden Ratio Studies and Finance
When used in technical analysis, the fibonacci numbers golden ratio is typically translated into three percentages: 38.2%, 50%, and 61.8%. However, more multiples can be used when needed, such as 23.6%, 161.8%, 423%, and so on. There are four primary methods for applying the Fibonacci sequence to finance: retracements, arcs, fans, and time zones.

1. Fibonacci Retracements
Fibonacci retracements use horizontal lines to indicate areas of support or resistance. They are calculated by first locating the high and low of the chart. Then five lines are drawn: the first at 100% (the high on the chart), the second at 61.8%, the third at 50%, the fourth at 38.2%, and the last one at 0% (the low on the chart). After a significant price movement up or down, the new support and resistance levels are often at or near these lines.

2. Fibonacci Arcs
Finding the high and low of a chart is the first step to composing Fibonacci arcs. Then, with a compass-like movement, three curved lines are drawn at 38.2%, 50%, and 61.8%, from the desired point. These lines anticipate the support and resistance levels, and areas of ranging.

3. Fibonacci Fans
Fibonacci fans are composed of diagonal lines. After the high and low of the chart is located, an invisible vertical line is drawn though the rightmost point. This invisible line is then divided into 38.2%, 50%, and 61.8%, and lines are drawn from the leftmost point through each of these points. These lines indicate areas of support and resistance.

4. Fibonacci Time Zones
Unlike the other Fibonacci methods, time zones are a series of vertical lines. They are composed by dividing a chart into segments with vertical lines spaced apart in increments that conform to the Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, etc.). These lines indicate areas in which major price movement can be expected.

Conclusion
Fibonacci Numbers Golden Ratio studies are not intended to provide the primary indications for timing the entry and exit of a stock; however, they are useful for estimating areas of support and resistance. Many people use combinations of Fibonacci Numbers Golden Ratio to obtain a more accurate forecast. For example, a trader may observe the intersecting points in a combination of the Fibonacci arcs and resistances. Many more use the Fibonacci studies in conjunction with other forms of technical analysis. For example, the Fibonacci studies are often used with Elliott Waves to predict the extent of the retracements after different waves. Hopefully you can find your own niche use for the Fibonacci Numbers Golden Ratio, and add it to your set of investment tools.



Source by anonymous

Where to Get Your Online Finance Degree

An online finance degree is a wonderful option for individuals who want to go to college, but for whatever reason prefer an online forum as opposed to a traditional classroom. Frequently, those who opt for an online finance degree have busy schedules already because of family and work commitments, and juggling a typical class schedule is nearly impossible. Also, individuals who have disabilities often times opt for an online finance degree simply because it is easier to work straight from home. No matter why you want an online finance degree, there are many options out there for you to choose from.

The online finance degree is a very popular major, and because of this almost all of the online universities offer the online finance degree. In addition to this, the online finance degree is not only available in bachelors, but also in masters and in some cases PhD. So, no matter if you want just a bachelor’s online finance degree or want to get an online finance degree at ever level, the choice is totally yours.

Paying for your online finance degree is not as difficult as it ahs been in the past, either, because now you can get student loans and choose different payment plans for your online finance degree. Paying for your online finance degree has never been easier.

In addition to this, you will need to decide exactly what you are looking for in the university where you will obtain your online finance degree. The reason for this is because there are so many online university options that range in popularity, accreditation and cost, that you will need to find out which ones offer the best online finance degree for your budget.

Be sure, however, before you begin studying for your online finance degree that you know your university is accredited and has many successful graduates with their online finance degree.



Source by Jay Moncliff

How does Owner Financing work – Owner Financed Homes For Sale


Selling a house or other Austin, TX real estate with owner financing may be unfamiliar territory for many, but anyone who plans to sell property against the current background of tough lending conditions may want to brush up on the basics.

Understanding the concept of owner financing is easy: the seller assumes the role of a bank and finances the buyer’s purchase.

The decision to provide owner financing, however, can be much more difficult; although providing owner financing could mean the difference in being able to sell a house, it could also mean a great amount of risk for the seller if the buyer eventually defaults on the loan.

As the U.S. struggles with a sluggish real estate market, owner financing presents a way for buyers and sellers to close deals that might not be possible with conventional financing.

There are some deals that just simply cannot get done (with conventional lending) because the credit markets are too tough for a particular buyer to qualify or because the type of transaction is perceived to be too risky.
There could also be a situation in which a buyer may not have sufficient capital for a down payment. Partial owner financing, in that case, can help fill in the gaps in closing a deal.

In addition, the benefits of owner financing can appeal to sellers who are trying to unload property. Closing a deal on a house, for example, may take considerably less time with owner financing than with conventional financing. While a conventional lender will scrutinize the collateral property to determine the level of risk, a seller who is already familiar with their property can form his or her own risk assessment relatively quickly.

Owner financing may also be an attractive choice for investment, potentially offering high rates of return. A seller can negotiate an interest rate that the buyer will pay them that is more favorable than would be available for other sorts of investments.

Furthermore, seller financing can provide some tax benefits by spreading out a large gain over time (check with your accountant or CPA).

If the seller structures the loan as an installment sale, there can be certain tax advantages to the seller as well in terms of the timing of recognition on the capital gain. The seller would need to discuss the details with a tax advisor.
Seller financing can be used to pay for a property either in full or in part. The terms of a full loan look similar to those of a conventional loan; however, a seller has a great deal of freedom in setting the terms, such as the interest rate and the duration of the payment period.

For instance, a seller might wish to provide owner financing as a short-term arrangement of five years, after which the borrower is expected to refinance the loan, presumably with conventional financing.

While sellers can be more flexible than banks in considering prospective buyers, they should nevertheless think like a bank when reviewing potential buyers. Examining documents and reports such as tax paperwork, proof of employment and credit history is prudent in determining a buyer’s ability to pay off the loan.

A seller who provides owner financing will need to get the mortgage recorded in accordance with the specific execution and acknowledgement requirements of the State of Texas. Sellers should also work with a title insurance company to perform a title search and purchase title insurance to secure the right priority for the mortgage.

A title insurance company can also serve as a good resource for understanding how much it will cost to record the mortgage. In Texas, the cost to record a mortgage or deed of trust is minimal, consisting of a basic administrative fee added to an amount that varies according to the number of pages.
Generally, the overall cost to seller finance will depend on how many documents are involved and how sophisticated those documents need to be. The size of the property and the intensity of due diligence procedures factor into these costs.

If it’s a simple scenario, such as a small little residential deal, it might be under a thousand bucks. If you provide seller financing for a sophisticated apartment building or strip center it can be multiple thousands of dollars. If you’re in the Austin, TX area, Forte Properties is your #1 choice for owner financed home transactions.

Documentation is perhaps the least of a seller’s worries. For most sellers, the initial decision to provide owner financing can be the most significant hurdle they encounter.

Documentation-that’s not a big deal. It’s done all the time, there are a lot of good lawyers that do it. It’s deciding to do it, and deciding on how to manage the risks inherent in providing owner financing when you’re a casual seller-that’s the biggest difficulty. Again, if you are interested in owner financing whether you are a home buyer or seller, Forte Properties in Austin, TX can help you every step of the way.

In most cases, sellers prefer to have cash instead of a promise by the buyer to pay them later. In addition, sellers who consider owner financing need to understand the risk that the buyer might not pay you in whole or in part, or might have financial distress situation arise down the road, where after a year or two the payment stream to you is disrupted by their financial distress.
Because sellers do not have the same resources as conventional lenders, financing a buyer can be even more intimidating. While banks can absorb the risk of nonpayment by spreading it across their entire loan portfolios, an individual seller isn’t typically able to do that. Furthermore, it’s more difficult for a seller to choose the best loan terms in accordance with the perceived risk/return.

There’s no science to that because you’re not a conventional lender. Because of the serious risks involved with seller financing, sellers should do their homework ahead of time and decide whether it is an option within their level of risk tolerance. Preferably, a seller should make this decision early in the process of selling a property, well before any offer is on the table.
You need to decide that up front so that you can package your materials in contemplation of what you’re willing to do relative to seller financing.
Lawyers who are familiar with financing and financial documents can be critical resources in the time preceding and immediately after making the decision to offer owner financing. A lawyer can help a seller understand the ramifications of owner financing and design the appropriate paperwork.

Sellers just need to be prepared for what happens if the deal goes south. Sellers can then adjust the language and terms in their loan documents accordingly, such as setting a higher interest rate that’s reflective of the higher risk, or requiring personal guarantees and other forms of credit enhancements.

As the popularity of owner financing has increased, the Texas Association of Realtors has witnessed an increase in the use of its promulgated “Seller Financing Addendum”. If you are considering a Austin, TX purchase involving owner financing (either as a buyer or seller), you should consult Forte Properties. They have a team of real estate professionals in various facets of the real estate market and are very familiar with the Seller Financing Addendum and all other documents required when buying or selling homes with owner financing.


Source by Owner Finance Austin, TX

Finance Careers: Investment Banking Analyst

For finance and business majors, one of the most coveted offers to have at graduation is an analyst position at an investment bank. Business students are attracted by the pay, the prestige and the fast-pace lifestyle that these twenty-something analysts live. But before collecting that (rather large) signing bonus, prospective analysts should make sure they understand what they’re getting themselves into.

Though many will seek investment banking careers, few will succeed. There are only so many IPOs, mergers and leveraged buyouts that take place each year, therefore the industry can only support so many jobs. Furthermore, there are many peaks and troughs in this market, so even if you have a job one year, you may not have it the next.

Despite the high degree of competition and the job insecurity, the résumé drop box for analyst positions is always full at the business school’s career office. So what kind of person are these firms looking for?

Getting in the Door

Yes, corporate finance looks for bright minds who can clearly articulate business insights. But investment banks are also looking for students who are driven and disciplined. Athletes often have the ideal personality type for investment banking. They work with a team and practice every day to win. That’s the type of mentality that succeeds in the corporate finance world.

In terms of education and experience, bankers are generally looking for candidates with business and finance backgrounds. Good majors include finance, accounting, business administration and economics, but even math and engineering majors can make their way into an interview if they can demonstrate that they are bright and understand the industry that they’re getting themselves into.

Internships and other work experience that relate to finance are also very important. If a candidate can demonstrate that they’re comfortable with financial modeling and analysis, they are likely to get an interview. But the interview process is where the fun begins.

Once selected for an interview, it is time for analyst candidates to start sweating. These interviews are often the toughest in the business world, and potential candidates should think twice before entering an interview without several hours of practice interviews as well as a few interview study books under their belts.

In these interviews, bankers are looking to verify that the aptitude that they perceived on a résumé is actually there. They may do so with brain teaser questions, rigorous financial analysis exercises or strange questions that are meant to throw the candidate off and test how they react to pressure.

Interviews may involve several rounds — on campus, off-site at a hotel or at the firm. The interview process usually culminates in a “super Saturday” round in which the top candidates meet with all the bankers at the firm and socialize — perhaps taking in a sporting event.

Super Saturday helps the firm to make a final decision on which candidates are the best cultural fit. Offers are extended, signing bonuses are accepted, and the newly-minted analysts enter the crazy world of investment banking.

What do Analysts Do?

So why does someone who is fresh out of college get paid such a large salary? In short, analysts have to constantly work their rear off. They may start their day at 8 am and not finish it until 1 or 2am — and sometimes they don’t go home at all. They usually plan to come in on the weekend to stay on top of projects. When all is said and done, analysts regularly put in 80 to 100 hours a week at New York firms and perhaps 60 to 80 hours at firms off of Wall Street.

To understand what it is that analysts do, it’s important to understand the deal cycle of the corporate finance department. Investment bankers — the vice presidents and managing directors — will either approach or be approached by companies with ideas for potential transactions. These deals may include IPOs, follow-on offerings, private placements, mergers and acquisitions.

Bankers will set up a meeting with the company called a pitch, in which they pitch the services of the firm to the company and present their analysis of the feasibility of the potential transaction. At the pitch, the bankers will present the potential client with a pitch book — usually a hard-copy PowerPoint presentation that describes the credentials of the bank along with a detailed analysis of the market in which the company operates and often a valuation of the company itself.

If the company is impressed with the firm and interested in pursuing a deal, then it will engage the firm to execute the transaction. Depending on the type of transaction and the conditions of the market, these transactions can take anywhere from a few months to a few years to complete. At any point in time, bankers can be working on several pitches and deals all at once.

Investment banking analysts rarely get to work on anything more than the pitch books for the bankers. Depending on the firm or the level of confidence that senior bankers have in an analyst, they may get to accompany the senior bankers on a pitch and might also assist in some of the deal execution.

As simple as it sounds, though, preparing pitch books is no easy task. The bread and butter of the analyst position is the comparable companies analysis — or “comps.” Comps are a valuation methodology in which public companies that are similar to the company in question are used to create multiples from which the value of the company can be extrapolated.

Comps are a great way to learn the intricate details of financial statements and develop a fundamental understanding of how value is created in a particular industry or market niche. But after a few months of doing one comp analysis after another, they get extremely tedious.

In addition to comps, analysts might be called upon to prepare a discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) for a pitch book. A DCF model is a bit more involved and requires putting together financial projections for a company, calculating its weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and using it to discount the cash flows to determine its value.

Other forms of analysis that investment banking analysts may be called upon to prepare include leveraged buyout models (LBOs) and precedent transactions analyses (similar to comps). Analysts are also under a lot of pressure to triple check their work to ensure that no errors make it into the pitch book — otherwise, they are likely to get an earful from embarrassed senior bankers returning from a failed pitch.

Many firms offer excellent training programs and have developed several model templates to help analysts up a very steep learning curve and to perform at a high level. The pressure, however, can still be quite intimidating and many of an analyst’s all-nighters occur during the first months as they spend extra time trying to learn their trade.

What are the Perks?

So with all the pressure and long hours, there’s got to be some incentives for analysts to stick around, right? Certainly. Depending on the firm, starting salaries for analysts can range from $60k to $90k, but when you add in bonuses that are often north of 50 percent, total compensation can range from $100k to $140k.

But wait, there’s more. Many firms have a policy that when analysts have to stay at work past 7pm (basically every night), they get their dinner paid for. Given the expense of the restaurants located in the financial districts, this perk can quickly add up to a lot of money, and many analysts quickly become dining connoisseurs.

Other perks often include reimbursement for cell phone or blackberry bills, free cab rides for late trips home and the occasional opportunity to celebrate with other bankers at a lavish closing dinner. With all these opportunities to save money and the long hours, analysts often have a hard time finding ways to spend their money.

Career Progression

After about three years of the investment banking grind, many analysts decide to go back to school for their MBA. If they haven’t been turned off by the late nights and long hours, they may decide to continue their career in the industry by taking an associate position in corporate finance. Associate positions are usually geared toward recent MBA grads, but depending on the firm, some analyst may be promoted to the associate level without an MBA.

Should an analyst choose to leave investment banking altogether — and many do — their experience can often be leveraged to move into positions that would normally require more experience. After all, many analysts wrack up double the hours of the average worker and have to perform their work at an intensity level that is among the highest in the business world.

Although many people are attracted to investment banking because of the high pay, the intense lifestyle causes many to leave after just a few years. The real windfall of investment banking for most people is the boost it gives to their career because of the experience they gain.

Before jumping headlong into the corporate finance world, a potential analyst should carefully weigh the realities of the position and ask whether this is really something he or she is looking for — or ready for.

Try a practice interview simulation.



Source by laufmannua