Getting $15,000 Personal Loans For Bad Credit And Debt Management

Most of us believe that having bad credit scores means we have very little chance of securing a meaningful loan. Lenders, after all, do not like lending to risky borrowers. But with the growth of online and subprime lenders, large loans have become attainable. So, a $15,000 personal loan for bad credit and debt management is realistically possible.

It would be nice to get fast loan approval, but lenders will often take their time to check credit histories when a large sum is being sought. However, getting loan approval to clear debts is more likely because of the purpose. The only thing for applicants to worry about is meeting the basic criteria.

But to help in the approval chances, it is worth enhancing aspects of the application, like improving the credit score to lower interest rates, and adding a cosigner to remove the risk. With such a strong application submitted, getting a personal loan becomes a formality.

How to Qualify

So what are the basic criteria that must be met? Applying for a $15,000 personal loan for bad credit can be tricky but qualifying is pretty straightforward. There are just four principal qualifications to worry about, and these are no surprise to anyone who has ever sought a loan in the past.

The first qualifying condition is that the applicant is aged 18 or older. The second, is that they are a US citizen, or have a permanent residency visa. And the third, is that they must be in full-time gainful employment. Normally, the applicant must be employed in their current job for a minimum of 6 months.

It is impossible to get loan approval to clear debts if these conditions are not satisfied first. But once they are, other details are examined, like income and debt-to-income ratios. Applicants also need a bank account, to ensure an easy funds transfer and to facilitate automatic repayments for the personal loan.

Consider Credit Score Improvement

There is no secret to the advantages of getting a $15,000 personal loan for bad credit management, or to clear debts that are causing financial woes. The extra cash can clear existing debts, and as each is paid off, the credit score of the applicant rises. As a result, extra cash is freed up to allow funds to be go elsewhere each month.

But bad credit borrowers must accept some compromises if they are to secure these loans at all. Low credit scores mean high interest rates, which means the repayments each month are high. Getting loan approval to clear debts may be admirable, but if the repayments are too high then rejection will follow.

So, it is a good idea to improve the credit score before submitting an application. This can be done with a series of small payday loans, perhaps of just $500 each. They must be repaid quickly, but when they are, each loan cleared will raise the score, making life easier when seeking a larger personal loan.

Get a Cosigner

Improving the credit score is a good idea, but getting a cosigner vastly improves the chances of securing a $15,000 personal loan for bad credit. Cosigners guarantee that monthly repayments will be made, even if the borrower is unable to make them. In doing this, the element of risk is removed from the loan deal.

It also means that interest rates are lowered and so the loan becomes more affordable. And with nothing to worry about, lenders are only too happy to grant loan approval, to clear debts or any other reason.

The only condition is that the cosigner has an excellent credit record, a healthy debt-to-income ratio and a reliable income that is also large enough to handle the personal loan repayments.

Source by Joycelyn Crawford

The Importance Of Wind Energy

A major plus to wind energy, is that the energy itself is free. However, it is important that when established,it is in an area with plenty of wind and resources to create the power. So that a long-term project can supply energy for a sustained lifetime. Wind energy can power entire neighborhoods and businesses with a turbine grid set up. It is able to supply power to large areas, as well as smaller vehicles and buildings. Versatility of wind energy is what makes it such an important resource. Depending on the power demand, large and small-scale turbines are available. However, this creates the versatility to choose how much power is going back into the grid to supply the energy.

When the wind turbines are in the first stage of erection, there is no way of knowing what the output power will be. Wind speed studies are normally implemented and this data is given a long- term projection. As the wind speed increases, there is an increase in the energy production. So, with wind energy increasing from 6 m/s to 10 m/s can mean that at 6 m/s the energy production was 67 percent, but a small increase to 10 m/s means there is an increase to 134 percent. This is a huge amount of energy being produced and added to the power grid. These variations in wind speed are important to know, to account for the anticipated wind energy production. So knowing the area is very important.

Wind energy is also important, since on a smaller scale, farms and small plants can use this power, saving the farmer money, as well as allowing them to supply their own energy to the area. Though the wind speed will vary at these locations too, the energy created can also be used to power smaller vehicles, allowing the company to become more self-sufficient and power their own vehicles and machines on the farm. While, again on a larger scale it can produce enough power to run entire neighborhoods and businesses. This extra power is enough to sustain these areas, releasing the stress off of a typical power plant.

Wind energy is important since it is a renewable resource that can forever be used, as long as there is wind. There is no end to it and this is a very clean form of energy to use. There are no harmful emissions or pollutants that enter the atmosphere from using them. Instead they are completely clean and natural. Wind energy has a very small impact on the environment and it is only through the wind turbines that are built to create the energy. Once these are in place, there is very little more to do and the wind energy should very little, if any negative impact on the environment.

Source by Aaron F

How Do Payday Loan Companies Verify Your Identity?

Payday loan companies are designed to offer short term loans to consumers. The loans are meant to help a consumer out in an emergency. The bulk of payday loan customers are unable to obtain a loan from a traditional funding source. Payday loan companies will require a great deal of information from a potential borrower to verify their identity. This verification process is designed to protect both the payday company and the borrower.

Picture Identification:

An US borrower will need to produce a valid picture identification card. The two most common forms accepted by a payday loan company are a driver’s license or a state issued identification card.

Paycheck Stub:

Anyone applying for a payday loan will have to bring a paycheck stub with them. Most payday companies will require a minimum of two current paycheck stubs. They will use the paycheck stubs as a means to verify the borrower’s identification card matches the name on their paycheck. The stub is also used to verify sufficient income.

Employment Verification:

Another way, payday loan companies verify a borrower’s identity is through employment verification. The potential borrower is required to fill out an application, stating their place of employment and the phone number of their employer. The payday loan company will double check to verify the employment phone number in their database matches the one provided by the potential borrower. This is done to guarantee the borrower is who they say they are, and that they truly work at that location.

Verification Of Bank Account:

The final step in verifying a borrower’s identity is through a bank account. A borrower who lives in the USA will need to provide a minimum of two current bank statements.

These bank statements will indicate to the payday company, whether or not, the potential borrower bounces checks and has an account in good standing. The payday company will use the phone number they have on file to call the bank, and verify the account is active.

The preceding for identity verification steps are designed to protect the loan company and the borrower from scam artists. Some potential payday loan customers feel the verification process is intrusive, but it is for their benefit.

When you apply online you will be asked to fill in the online application form. There you must mention the number of your identity card, driver license if you have one, SSN, job title, bank details etc. It is not required to upload any documents with your photo. But submitted information will be checked and you will have a notification if your loan application is processed.

Submitting an application simply states that you wish for one of payday agents to approve and contact you to discuss your payday loan options. You may ask us any questions, and withdraw your request if you so choose. If you are ready to proceed, you may confirm your information and officially agree to terms with one of our representatives.

Your application will be processed within 30 minutes upon being received. Once approved, you may collect your loan the next business day. At that time, payday lenders will help schedule a repayment date so you will not have to worry about bouncing a check or missing a deadline.

The rule is that lenders respect their customer’s right to privacy in managing their personal finances. Commonly websites offering a pay day loans use a variety of security measures to maintain the safety of your personal information. All sensitive data transmitted between your internet browser and website of the lender uses 128 bit Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption technology. So you may relax and don’t worry about stealing your personal information.

Source by Tom Soucy

Five Conditions for Innovation

Incremental innovations occur everywhere, but revolutionary innovations-the kind that leverage new technologies and business models to drive down costs, increase accessibility, and improve services-are not typical. I believe that the reason for this is an improper realization of the conditions that foster both ability and motivation for innovation. These five conditions include:

  • Experimentation
  • Phase-out old products and services
  • Feedback loops
  • Incentives for product or service improvement
  • Budget constraints

To illustrate how these conditions affect the innovation process, let’s examine each one.

Experimentation. Any organization that wishes to adapt to a changing environment needs a mechanism for experimentation with new technologies and delivery models. Without the ability to develop an experimental infrastructure, fundamentally new and different approaches rarely emerge.

Phase-out old products and services. If an experiment is successful, a new challenge arises. Many organizations lack the ability to freely remove outdated technology and business models. This requires invested leadership with the ability to meet challenges that arise with change.

Feedback loops. It’s no surprise that strong feedback between clients and the organization are required to motivate investment into and adoption of the most valuable innovations. Explicit feedback is needed for managers to judge when to focus on the improvement of services versus the reduction of costs.

Incentives for product or service improvement. Equipped with the knowledge of what clients want, suppliers can improve their offerings if sufficiently motivated with access to increased revenue and/or reduced costs. The key to incentives is to appropriately aligned them with the goals of the organization.

Budget constraints. Budgets force prioritization. Not only do limits force people to prioritize, they also create incentives to cut costs. For innovation to take hold, leaders should ensure that budget constraints exist in order to motivate the appropriate prioritization. In some situations, such as individually distributed services, the constraints should be placed on the customers. In other situations, such as in purchasing, the constraint should be placed on the person responsible for the acquisition. Regardless of where the constraint falls, it is vital that budget incentives are used to force prioritization.

These five conditions for innovation make continuous change possible, and the difference between success and failure is the ability to create or preserve most if not all of these five conditions.

Source by Douglas Rugh, PhD

Are Property Taxes Fair?

Property tax is probably the fairest tax collected by municipalities. However, it is also probably the un-fairest tax collected by municipalities.

The state where an individual lives determines how much they pay, which may be higher or lower. An individual’s economic status can also be a factor in how this type of tax impacts their pocketbook.

In fact when it comes to the decision on taxes and renting versus owning, this may be the only time renting is the best option. States collect property taxes on:

  • Land
  • Improvements to land such as additions to property
  • Man made objects that are not stationary structures

It is usually assessed by individual county tax collectors in each state. Land and property are mailed tax payment notices that are the result of appraisals of the property’s value. Notices of assessments can be disputed by contacting the tax collector in the land owner’s county, and the tax bill is typically paid from a homeowner’s escrow amount on their mortgage.

As mentioned, property taxes can disproportionately affect some homeowners. Increases in a state’s tax rate can often double or even triple a homeowner’s tax liability and often leave them with no option but to sale their residence or land.

Critics of this form of taxation have also decried the fact that it does address the situations of some individuals. Although it is ordinarily paid as part of an escrow account, increased property tax means they would have to pay more into escrow.

Senior citizens on a fixed income have been identified as a group sometimes hit hard by taxes on their property. Such individuals may have high taxes due to an increase in the value of their property, yet find them selves unable to pay because of a reduced income during retirement. This mandatory tax, in some cases, does not take into account factors that may impact someone’s ability to pay, such as personal tragedy or acts of nature.

Property tax has also been criticized because of the difference individuals must pay between states. Alabama has the lowest rate at 1.3 percent on property value, while New Hampshire has the largest at 4.9 percent. The average percentage among is somewhere in the range of 2.3 percent.

While Alabama has a tax rate of 1.3, which would seem to make it an attractive location for a home or business owner, someone with property a few feet away in neighboring Georgia would have to pay 2.6 percent, and more than double in Florida with a tax rate of 3.1 percent.

Just how to spend the revenue (or waste it, as is the case with many governments) generated by taxing property values is determined by state legislatures. A state’s legislature also has say over reducing or raising the tax rate along with determining how often it should be collected. Additionally, there may also set limits on how much increase, if any, there can be every year.

Property tax definitely helps states with revenue. But while much needed, property tax can also be a deciding factor in where an individual lives or their ability to retain the American Dream of owning land.

Source by Frank Mather

Nature and Scope of Economics

Many writers of the early days defined economics as “a science of wealth”. Adam Smith commonly know as the father of modern economics, defined economics as “An enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of nations.”

These definitions were defective because they gave much importance to wealth. As wealth is not everything, it only leads to achieve welfare of human. Therefore it is man an which is the aim all of the economic activities.

Professor Dr. Alfred Marshall was the first economist who gave a logical definition of economics. He defined economics as: “A study of mankind in ordinary business of life, it examine that part of individual and social actions which is closely related with attainment and use of material requisites”


This definition gave a new direction to the study of economics. Following are the important characteristics of definition.

1. A Social Science

This Definition makes economics a social science. It is a subject that is concerned with the people living in society. According to Marshall, as the behavior of human beings is not same all the time therefore principles of economics cannot be formulated like the laws of sciences. Further laws of economics are not as exact as the laws of natural sciences. For this reason it is a social science.

2. Study Of Man

Economics is related to man; therefore it is living subject. It discusses economic problems and behavior of man. According to Marshall it studies the behavior of man In ordinary business of life.

3. Wealth As A Means Of Material Well Being

According to Marshall, wealth is not the ultimate objective of human activities and therefore we do not study wealth, for the sake of wealth. Therefore according to this definition we study wealth as a source of attainment of material welfare.

4. Economics And Welfare

This definition makes economics a welfare oriented subject. We are concerned only with those economic activities which do not promote material welfare of human beings are out of the scope of economics.

5. Materiality

Marshal stresses upon the concept of “material requisite of well being”. Therefore according to this definition all economic activities resolve around the acquisition and use of material goods like food, clothing etc. because they increase welfare of human beings. On the other hand non-material requisites of human life like education, recreation are ignored.

6. Normative Outlook

According to this definition economics should take care of good and bad aspects of economic activities and therefore involve itself in “what should be and what should not be”. This is called normative aspect of economics.


“Robbins and other many economists severely criticized this definition on following grounds.”

1. Limited To Material Welfare

This definition limits the subject of economics to material welfare of people. But the subject of economics is not limited to the study of material welfare of human beings. In reality both material and non material aspects of wellbeing are studies in economics.

2. Vague Concept of Welfare

The concept of welfare used in this definition is also not clear. The welfare of human beings is not limited to the attainment of material requisites. There are many other factors which affect the human welfare. Further the word “welfare” has different meaning for different persons and different societies. Therefore we cannot define economics using an unclear concept of welfare.

3. Limited Scope

This definition has made the scope of economics limited. Only those activities are studied in economics which are aimed at the attainment of material requisites of well being. Further it ignores the economic activities of a person not living in society. Attainment of non material requisites of human well being fall out of the scope of economics. This division of material and non material aspects of human welfare is not correct.

4. Economics And Welfare

According to Robbins the study of economic activities on the basis of welfare is not good. It is not the duty of an economist to pass verdict that what is conducive to welfare and what is not. Thus according to Robbins “Whatever Economics is concerned with, it is not concerned with causes of material welfare as such.

5. Moral Judgment

In this definition Marshall makes economics a subject which considers the right and wrong aspect of economic activities. According to Robbins economics in neutral as regards ends and it is not the function of an economist to pass moral judgments and say what is good and what is bad.

6. Unrealistic

This definition appears to be unrealistic as we analyze it critically. The unclear concept of welfare, the division of ends into material and non material, the stress on good and bad, the concept of man living in society etc. all these concepts put unnecessary restrictions and make the scope of economics limited. These ideas make the definition unrealistic.


Although this definition gave a new direction to the subject of economics but it had many weaknesses. Some of the faults of definition are discussed above. For these reasons this definition was replaced by other new definitions of economics.

Source by Muhammad Waqas Nayyar

The Advantages of Venture Capital Vs Bank Loans

Venture Capital isn’t the only answer. But it’s one of very few answers if you want to take your business to a materially different level. Many other financial routes are closed off in the current climate and non financial adjustments, whilst potentially positive, will not have the same impact.

Recruitment attracts entrepreneurs. The UK is without doubt one of the global hubs for recruitment. There are more agencies in London than there are in the whole of the US, but that does make it difficult to stand out from the crowd.

Venture Capital vs Bank Loans

Taking a significant step forward with a business usually requires some sort of investment and in general there are 2 recognised financial routes. The first is a bank loan and the other is venture capital (or private equity).

If you pursue the bank loan route bear in mind, as a recruitment company is not an asset backed company (apart from its debtors which normally attract finance for working capital) it’s never been easy to borrow money against a recruitment companies future profits, given that the assets leave the office at 6pm every night and hopefully return the next day.

Traditional banking has never been more difficult than it is now. There are many reported cases in the last few years where companies have borrowed from a bank, have been able to repay the interest but have been in breach of the long list of banking covenants. These covenants are scrutinized intensely by super-keen analysts, who seem all too ready to press the alarm bell, sending in the bank’s friendly business support team. In turn, this often leads to them calling in the administrators… and the rest is history… in many cases.

Undoubtedly the dangers of obtaining bank loans have never been greater, peppered with high charges, conditions, key ratios and draconian penalties, if you can get past the hurdle of getting one in the first place.

The alternative method of raising finance is by attracting an investor such as a venture capitalist, whereby you sell a piece of your equity in return for long term investment. However, this is hardly a piece of cake either. Nevertheless, it’s generally regarded as the best credible alternative to a bank loan.

Benefits of Venture Capital Specialist;

Knowledge; If you choose a venture capitalist with experience, or preferable a focus, in your chosen market you will gain a partner with considerable insights and practical experience.

Advice & Mentoring; Their expertise will be extremely useful in terms of acquisition or strategic advice, management infrastructure, succession planning and of course exit. If you haven’t been part of an exit before, an experienced partner will be invaluable, both with practical advice, business preparation and contacts in the market. They’ll then not only add value in general but will unlock the value of the equity, a specific skill which many owners don’t yet have, because they haven’t needed to.

Understanding; The right VC partner will take the time to understand your business. If they have experience of the recruitment industry, they will understand the cause and effect of recruitment specific issues such as seasonality, payment cycles and drop-outs. Therefore, they will make more informed decisions and will understand that the assets in the business are the people.

Additional Financing; If additional financing is required in the future, then a VC will provide important support either via increasing bank lending or through investing further themselves.

Contacts and Networks An investor, especially one well connected to the recruitment industry, should be able to utilise their wide range of contacts through their business networks, from PR agencies to banks, from accountants to marketeers. Everyone who can help take your business to a new level and beyond.


Attracting investment can accelerate your company’s growth exponentially. If chosen wisely, it can help support your plans and take some of the strain from the senior management.

Traditional bank loans are difficult to obtain now and are inflexible. I would also argue that they are light on additional benefits. VC’s can add real value from their experience and contacts, especially if they are industry experienced professionals who have held executive management roles and have practical experience of adding value. In addition, where a VC is investing it’s own money you can be sure that their commitment to wealth creation for all equity stakeholders will be 100%.

Source by Philip M Marks

Lazarus in Crime and Punishment’s Epilogue

The greatest obstacle in literary criticism is the inability of the reader to know with certainty the mind of the author. For all we know, the author’s intentions could have been completely opposite the general analysis. For that reason, conflicting opinions abound, and controversy rages over issues that the author most likely never intended as such. In his Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky added an epilogue to conclude the novel. In the previous chapter, Raskolnikov, the protagonist, confesses and the police arrest him for murder. Many critics believe that this is an adequate ending and that the epilogue is entirely unnecessary, while others contend that the epilogue is very necessary, as it hints at Raskolnikov’s redemption and resurrection. Crime and Punishment is a Christian novel, with religious overtones and undertones throughout, such as Sonya’s reading of the story of Lazarus, which parallels Raskolnikov’s own story. However, the novel also loosely follows the structure and content of the Greek tragedy, and this coexistence of the Christian redemption and resurrection themes and the tragic Oedipus Rex themes creates a complex work that cannot be considered from only one perspective. The epilogue is extremely necessary to the conclusion of Crime and Punishment, as it allows for the further development of Raskolnikov’s character and giving him another dimension. He is not just the insane, crazed ax murderer whose guilt and depravity eat at him until he confesses. It seems that way at the end of the final chapter. But with the addition of the epilogue, Rodion Raskolnikov starts down the path of resurrection, which he hadn’t seemed inclined towards earlier in the novel. Without the epilogue, Raskolnikov would remain a less complex character, incapable of repentance.

Many critics reject the epilogue because they cannot accept the moral regeneration that it promises. According to Lev Shestov, Raskolnikov’s only crime was to believe that he was incapable of breaking the law, and that his tragedy was not his guilt and insanity but rather the “impossibility of beginning a new and different life” (71-72). The entire novel moves toward a conversion or resurrection, most notably and obviously by the appearance of the biblical story of Lazarus, read by the prostitute Sonya, who is based on Mary Magdalene. Dostoevsky did not choose Lazarus at random. He chose Lazarus because the story is a subtle reminder of Raskolnikov’s chance at redemption, to be reborn after repenting his sins. This theme of resurrection is prominent throughout the novel, and to ignore this theme is to ignore an enormous part of Dostoevsky’s meaning. Yes, this is a novel about the inner psyche of a sociopath and an exploration of guilt, but it is also about realizing one’s sins and repentance for them.

Edward Wasiolek raises a more valid argument in that he believes that Dostoevsky has failed to provide his readers with any evidence that Raskolnikov has enough spiritual awareness to contradict his theories put forth in his essay “On Crime” or to follow Sonya’s spiritual direction. This is a valid point, and it would be correct, if not for the abundance of examples of Raskolnikov starting the conversion. He is not reborn spontaneously, as Wasiolek would have you believe, but rather after a wealth of experiences that have influenced him to this end. For example, every time Raskolnikov helps the Marmelodovs, he does so because of a brief, but real, compassion. True, he regrets his charity almost instantly, but that thoughtless compassion suggests he does not feel the self-professed superiority in his heart. That resides only in his mind. As such, his consequent interactions with Sonya further this trend towards recognizing himself as a man on the same plane of existence as those he once considered lesser. Raskolnikov slowly progresses, allowing compassion to infiltrate his mind at times, beginning his conversion, his resurrection. As he realizes his own humanity, he becomes more conscious of his guilt. This indicates that he is not completely gone, that he can recover from the insanity that possessed him. Robert Louis Jackson notes that Raskolnikov’s behavior passes through two distinct phases-first showing great sympathy and compassion for those who need it and immediately, unthinkingly, takes measures to alleviate their suffering, and afterward feels disgust at having betrayed his intellectual principles, which don’t allow for sympathy towards such lesser, unworthy beings. However, that first, natural inclination to help those in need betrays Raskolnikov’s humanity. His sense of compassion “endows his actions with a magnanimity that runs counter to the malevolence of his scheme and the cruelty of his crime” (Matual, 28).

Furthermore, Raskolnikov never was a cold-blooded killer. His mind was convinced of his superiority, but in contemplating the murder, he was disgusted, repelled. He sought any excuse to forgo the task, but when what he perceived as a sign from the universe indicated that he must kill Alyona Ivanovna, he was filled with repugnance at the prospect of taking someone’s life. He never lost his doubts, nor his repugnance of the act, and it continued to eat away at him until he confessed at the end of the novel. Raskolnikov’s compassion for the poor and oppressed, his revulsion at the murder, and his memories of childhood innocence and piety provide a basis for his resurrection in the epilogue. The acts of compassion “represent only the potential for rebirth,” and “something more powerful is required to arose him from his spiritual lethargy and lead him toward the events of the epilogue” (Matual, 30). To end the novel after the confession is to leave Raskolnikov without finishing his story. His transformation was only just beginning, and only through his experiences at the Siberian prison can he continue the conversion. Only after a long spell of defiance at the prison, Raskolnikov gives in to his human side and responds to Sonya’s love. He pulls the bible out from under his pillow and reads once again of Lazarus, he who is reborn, just like him. Here Raskolnikov finally accepts his stint at the prison as his catharsis, be redeemed, and proceed to a new life. Raskolnikov is not just an evil, heartless person. His repugnance at his crime, his compassion for others, and his confession all hinted at a possible redemption. With the confession, he is only just starting down the path of conversion, and the epilogue is entirely necessary to see whether he will accept the consequences of his actions and be reborn or if he will reject them and withdraw into insanity and depravity once more.

In addition, the novel’s many facets and interlocking stories all point directly to the epilogue. Numerical motifs are prevalent, and they are left unfinished at the end of the novel, but with the inclusion of the epilogue, they are masterfully concluded. For example, the number nine recurs throughout the novel with regard to time. Crime and Punishment covers three nine-month periods: “1) from the genesis of the crime to its perpetration, 2) from the confession to the trial and the journey to Siberia, and 3) from the beginning of Raskolnikov’s exile to the moment when he embraces Sonia and a new life begins for him [… ] It takes nine months for the crime to be ‘hatched,’ nine months for the punishment to begin, and another nine months for Raskolnikov to be reborn in the epilogue” (Matual 32). Clearly, Dostoevsky was thinking of the period of birth, as each nine-month segment results in something being born. First, Raskolnikov’s terrible plot is carried out, carried to term and born, if you will. Second, Raskolnikov confesses and his transformation begins, which results in his deliverance to Siberia, where his final cycle begins. After nine months, he is reborn, allowing Sonya into his life and repenting his sins, feeling genuine regret for the atrocities he committed. Raskolnikov’s mind is born first, resulting in the murders. His body is born second, upon his deliverance to Siberia. His heart and soul are born last, reuniting his body, mind, and soul, and concluding his resurrection. Had Crime and Punishment ended with Raskolnikov’s confession, there would be a complete and utter lack of closure. Uncertainty would remain concerning his conversion and the consequences of his actions. Sometimes leaving the reader with doubt at the end of a novel is a useful and pleasing conclusion, but not with doubt as to the driving questions of the novel. Dostoevsky masterfully concluded Crime and Punishment in such a way as to answer all those questions, and yet still leaves the reader wondering what form Raskolnikov’s new life with Sonya would take.

Another point to consider is the structure of Crime and Punishment. It parallels the Greek tragedy, and it also parallels the story of Lazarus. The concept of fate, which has a pagan connotation, and the concept of God’s will are, strangely, not at odds with each other. They coexist, leaving the reader to interpret the happenings as they will, perhaps considering divine intervention, perhaps considering coincidences. Depending on the view the reader takes, interpretations can vary. For instance, considering Christianity and the story of Lazarus, the novel is quite unfinished without the inclusion of the epilogue. Raskolnikov’s true transformation would remain in doubt, and the parallels between Lazarus and Raskolnikov would end abruptly. Dostoevsky included Lazarus for a reason, and so would never leave the conclusion to Raskolnikov’s story incomplete. He planned for the epilogue to conclude this storyline, and merged Lazarus’s and Raskolnikov’s fates. The pagan fate is similar to the belief in predestination, as God already knows what will happen. Even from a pagan perspective, the epilogue is necessary to provide for the knowledge of Raskolnikov’s transformation and new life, and ultimately his fate.

Although Crime and Punishment’s epilogue strikes many critics as heavy-handed and unnecessary, it is an important component and essential conclusion to the novel. The objections raised are without a solid basis, as Raskolnikov did not spontaneously reach repentance and redemption, but rather had the potential to do so all his life. In actuality, the presence of good and compassion within him provides his character with depth and another level of complexity, making every decision that much harder. Because his mind and his heart are at odds with each other, each surface at different points of the novel, expressing disgust, revulsion, or contempt at the other. This drives him mad, and eventually his compassion beats out his superiority and drives him to confess. The epilogue provides Raskolnikov with another dimension, his capacity for good, as he repents his sins and becomes a new man. The epilogue is unavoidable, the accumulation of all the preceding events that culminate in Raskolnikov’s transformation.

Works Cited

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. New York: Bantam Dell, A division of Random House, Inc., 1866.

Jackson, Robert Louis. “Philosophical Pro and Contra in Part One of Crime and Punishment,” Twentieth Century Interpretations of Crime and Punishment. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall, 1974. p. 27.

Matual, David. “In Defense of the Epilogue of Crime and Punishment.” EBSCO Publishing, 2002. 26-34.

Shestov, Lev. Dostoevsky I Nitshe. Berlin: Skify, 1923. 71-72.

Wasiolek, Edward. “On the Structure of Crime and Punishment.” PMLA 74, 1959: 135.

Source by L. M. Newcomb

5 Major Insights on Long Term and Short Term Loans Discussed Honestly

Loans like the short term and the long term have a league of advantages and disadvantages, and most of these depend on the requirements of individual borrowers. Both types of loans provide legitimate access to financial route, but each one has their respective alcove and function. Knowledge on these loans will create a notable difference as the borrowers can make the right decision at right point of time. Moreover, it is going to be useful to save capital for personal purpose and help in the financial growth.

Insight on Merits and Demerits

Insight #1

Long term loans are paid off in small amounts, with time extending to long periods. In most cases, this time period can range from a few months to more than two decades. These loans are processed by traditional banking sectors, financial institutions as well as credit lending agencies, with an essentiality of full financial background analysis. In addition, this financing offer has a very cumbersome process, and this is time-consuming. Here again, you need to check with the credible broker.

Insight #2

Long term loans comprise mortgage payments, school loans, and vehicle loans, providing a considerable amount of money that is easily repaid over a period of time. Besides, the interest rate and fees associated with such loans, which is directly proportional to credit approval, work history, assets and several inter-connected factors. Affordable interest rates are only possible in case the credit history of the prospective borrower is impressive and he or she has the stable employment.

Insight #3

One of the major drawbacks associated with long-term financing is that the application processing is time-consuming, and most often, has to be supported with comprehensive documentation and paperwork. There is also need for the guarantor at the time of applying, especially since there is an unstable economic environment.

Insight #4

Short term loans, also known as payday loans aim at providing quick cash to the borrowers. These loans are functionally opposite of the long-term loans. The process of filing an application is simple, lucid and less time consuming. The lender offering this type of loan product is interested in knowing about your income, the nature of job, and the bank account. This type of financing is for the limited period, and therefore quickly repaid.

Insight #5

Approval of short term loans doesn’t need any credit check or any potential customer. The entire process of application will be over before you could ever think. The credit is available for the disbursal on the same day. The repayments are also gradual and quite objective in nature.

Short term loans or the long term loans; making the right choice, always matters. The differentiation between financing is in the manner the available credit is put to use and the time frame for repayment.

Source by Sarah Maggie

Peter Berger’s Sociology: An Unvarnished Introduction

Prose and Presentation

Berger’s prose style is neither elegant not convoluted. For the most part it is a model of plain-spoken clarity, though one must remember that he is an intellectual and a professional sociologist, typically writing for those who fit in the same or similar categories. Moreover, from time to time and source to source he may resort to the use of gratuitous neologisms, something that, in my experience, often leaves an author and his readers poorly served.

Nevertheless, neologisms are consistent with Berger’s judgment that sociologists have an obligation to create concepts to serve the research purpose at and. Berger is unconvinced by claims that the established conceptual apparatus known to most sociologists is sufficiently flexible and exhaustive in coverage to be of universal value.

In The Homeless Mind, for example, Berger invoked concepts of his own making, or that he had borrowed from relatively obscure sources, in an effort to more effectively capture the complexities and difficult substantive concerns of modernization and modernity. His use of adventitious concepts such as mechanisticity and compenentiality was prompted by his judgment that understanding the institutions and styles of consciousness in a modernized world is sufficiently difficult to require application of new and different ideas. Unfortunately, however, the result was a collection of unnecessary, awkward, and not particularly attractive or illuminating terms that occur much less frequently than one might expect throughout the rest of the book.

On the oddly infrequent occasions in which I encountered one or more of these clumsily mystifying locutions, I paused, translated it into everyday language or established social scientific concepts, and wondered why Berger had made this sort of translation necessary. This kind of misguided linguistic inventiveness represents the repository of terminological pretentiousness and confusion that makes outsiders suspicious of sociology as an intellectually constructive discipline. This is exactly the sort of ill-conceived conceptual apparatus that Berger himself has referred to as “the technical dialect for which sociologists have earned a dubious notoriety.”

Perhaps this is an unduly harsh judgment, and certainly, in principle, development of new concepts tailored to specific tasks may be a good idea. It does seem, however, to diminish the value of sociological concepts already in wide use. It also makes one wonder if Berger fails to appreciate his estimable facility in dealing with complex and difficult social phenomena using everyday language devoid of extraneous, quasi-technical terminology. After all, Berger himself has held that most sociology can be effectively presented in ordinary English.

In addition, in other contexts Berger has shown that he is perfectly capable of parsimoniously producing suggestively useful and linguistically new concepts well suited to a particular project. For example, when working in South Africa as part of a group charged with anticipating what the post-apartheid nation might look like, he was asked to provide a conceptual framework that would guide the efforts of the disparate collection of bright and accomplished policy analysts with whom he was working.

Wisely, Berger used “The Social Construction of Reality” as his point of departure. In addition, he invoked the term “cognitive maps” to refer to the interests of the various politically active groups with a stake in developments in their nation.

“Cognitive maps” strikes me as just the right concept to capture the conflicting, over-lapping, and independent interests involved. There’s nothing awkward or mystifying about it, and it serves Berger’s purpose quite well. It seems that Berger’s talent for inventing new concepts and suitably readable neologisms varies enormously from one project to another, with the fewer the better being a very good guideline.

As a contemporary sociologist of knowledge, Berger is primarily interested in what ordinary people know — commonsense or recipe knowledge — rather than arcane philosophical accounts of the ideas of highly specialized scholars. Finding truth according to some presumably infallible absolute and fundamental standard is not part of Berger’s project. Instead, his first concern is the reality of everyday life, or commonsense knowledge. Since we live in an inter-subjective world, commonsense knowledge is the knowledge we share with others in our everyday activities and mundane interactions.

Berger insightfully grasps the fact that this is the kind of knowledge without which society could not exist. The shared, all-purpose, commonsense nature of commonsense knowledge provides an answer to a question of first importance to Durkheim and numerous other sociologists, namely “how is society possible.” The answer for Berger is that commonsense knowledge provides the building blocks that make it so.

I think that an important implication of Berger’s perspective is that it is a waste of time for the sociologist, rather than the philosophical anthropologist, to struggle with a definition of human nature. If sociologists are interested in human nature as a foundation for their theorizing and substantive work, I think it’s best to construe it as contingent and context specific. We are products of the circumstances in which we live, and our nature is contextually mutable and historically distinctive. In effect, we produce ourselves and are produced as part of the dialectical process of living with others in sets of circumstances that assure that our natures will be variable. Berger puts this exceptionally well in The Sacred Canopy, where he holds that “society is a dialectical phenomenon in that it is a human product and nothing but a human product, that yet continuously acts back on its producer.”

Berger’s emphasis on the sociology of everyday life as people actually live it is an important reason why his work, with occasional exceptions, has been consistently accessible. It also attunes us to the pervasively available meanings without which no society could exist. It focuses on the character of the social context in which we live and what we take to be factual and real.

Those who would take the foregoing, in sum, to mean that sociological knowledge is transitory and contingent have a point. Berger, however, offers a determined effort to make the case that sociology is in an advantageous position with regard to producing objective knowledge that cannot be dismissed a just relativistic speculation dressed up in methodologically and theoretically elaborate social scientific garb. When he trumpets his discovery of the unparalleled virtues of capitalism, however, he steps away from this position, making a fatal error of his own. For the most part, however, Berger’s position with regard to objectivity is perfectly tenable and devoid of special pleading for sociology.

Eventually, a book titled “Peter Berger’s Sociology: An Unvarnished Overview,” may appear in print, a thorough and critical discussion of the material we have just introduced. For now, those who would like to read an account of much of the material that provides the basis for Berger’s work can turn to “Classical Social Theory in Use: Interpretation and Application for Educators and other Non-Specialists,” published by Information Age.

Source by Robert Bickel