Financial functions in multinational firms

Finance is the Life Blood of the Business and so the case of MNCs also. The only difference in finance of domestic companies and MNCs is that the finance in domestic companies is in domestic currency where as in case of the MNCs the finance is in multi currencies. But whatever be the conditions, with out finance, no company can exist. Finance is required for many purposes like purchase of raw material, purchase of machinery, purchases of the related items, payment of salaries, meeting the operational expenses, etc., so the finance is required for all these purposes. To know about the activities of multinational firms will help for finance assignments.  The activities of providing finance to the MNCs are known as Financing MNCs. Short – Term Financing is financing the working capital requirements of multinational companies’ foreign affiliate’s poses a complex decision problem.

This complexity stems from the large number of financing options available to the subsidiary of an MNC. Subsidiaries have access to funds from sister affiliates and the parent, as well as external sources. The following are the financing which is long term particularly for the capital equipments and other big items given to the MNCs who are actively engaged in the Foreign Trade. 1. Export Financing 2.Export Credit Subsidies and 3.Export Credit Insurance.  Items that need long repayment arrangements, most government of developed countries have attempted to provide their domestic exporters with competitive edge in the form low-cost export financing and concessionary rates on political and economic risk insurance. Nearly every development nation has its own export-import agency for trade financing and development.

Raising of funds on favourable terms is an important aspect of financial management.  This also holds good for procurement of funds in the international market, in any currency.  Multinational funds may be raised either through internal or external sources.  Internal funds comprise share capital, loans from patent company, and retained earnings.  Funds from external sources can be raised from:

Commercial Banks – Commercial Banks all over the world provide foreign currency loans for international operations as they do for domestic operations.  These banks also provided facility to overdraw, over and above the loan amount.

Discounting of Trade Bills – This method is used as a short-term financing method.  It is widely used in Europe and Asia to finance both domestic and international trade. 

Euro-currency Market – When the currency is deposited outside the country of origin.  It is termed as Eurocurrency. 

Euro-bond Markets – Like euro-currency market, euro-bond market has emerged as another significant source of capital.  Euro-bonds are also primarily sold in countries other than that of the country in whose currency the bond is denominated.  Thus, bonds denominated in yen but sold in US, Britain etc., are known as euro-bonds.

Development Banks – Many countries have development banks which offer long and medium-term loans.  Many agencies at the national level offer incentives for firms to invest within their country or to finance exports. 

International Agencies – Many international agencies have come into being for financing specific category of projects. 

Source by Benny

Business in 2020 – How Will it Change?

Over the forthcoming years it must be expected that all aspects of life on Earth will change drastically and dramatically, be this through climate change, technological advancement or economic transition. On analysing the ‘eighties’, or even the ‘nineties’, the changes which have occurred from then to the present day are nothing short of amazing. Most children and teenagers cannot imagine a lifestyle which does involve such technology (or gadgets) as mobile phones and laptops. These applications have become firmly inter-linked with everyday life and are now a way of life rather than a ‘flashy’ gimmick, as they were often referred to as in their infancy. In a similar way, such technology has had the same impact on businesses and the environment they operate within. Mobile telephones are prevalent amongst employees in most industries and e-mails, databases, spreadsheets and various other programmes have, to a degree, rendered the pen and paper nothing more than a ‘supporting act’. With such major changes occurring in such a short space of time, it appears businesses will continue to experience extreme and drastic new environments. How they react to them will determine their success and longevity within their markets.  There is only one thing certain about the future of business – it will always be changing!

Business revolves around consumers and, in the main, satisfying their needs and desires. However, clever marketing and propaganda can often mould consumer groups in to thinking they need a certain product, service or brand. Therefore, the key drivers of how business progresses will be consumers coupled with economic, political, environmental, social, technological and legal factors. During the course of this essay, each of the factors will be analysed and suggestions on their effects provided.

Ray Kurzweil, a renowned computer scientist, predicts “We won’t experience 100 years progress in the 21st century – it will be more like 20,000 years of progress at today’s rate. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to the Singularity: technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. In practical terms human ageing and illness will be reversed; pollution will be stopped; world hunger and poverty will be solved. Nanotechnology will make it possible to create virtually any physical product using inexpensive information processes, and will ultimately turn even death into a soluble problem”. (Extract taken from article ‘Readying a radical business plan’ on Whilst the above views may be deemed ‘far fetched’, the reality is that technological advancements in recent times may also have been classed as ‘unachievable’ only a few decades ago.

Appendix 1 attached is a document produced by British Telecom which contains a predicted timeline of technological inventions. The shear volume of predicted inventions and in many cases their immense advancement in technology clearly demonstrates the opportunities and threats which businesses face. Highlighted are a number of particularly interesting suggested inventions. It must also be considered that along with positive innovations, there will always be people with counter productive motives who thrive on damaging innovations. BT’s timeline predicts such potentially damaging developments as ‘Viruses’ aimed at toys, Jigsaw viruses, ‘Phishing’ of on-line banking, Corporate ‘cyberwars’ and terrorists using GM to pollute crops and damage economy. With this in mind businesses will have to pay added attention to security as improved technology equates to improved criminals.  

 Climate change and growing concerns over the environment are likely to have a major impact on the way business is conducted in the future. At present legislation regarding the conduct of firms with regards to the environment is extremely evident (eg. REACH – A new European Community Regulation dealing with Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemical Substances). However, a major problem is that many large industrial countries, such as the US and China, fail to comply or ‘sign-up’ to international legislation, such as the Kyoto Protocol (February 2005). They hold too much global power, at present, for legislative action to be effective against them. Therefore, it must be hoped that support is gained from amongst these countries populations, as ‘people power’ can play a major role in convincing politicians. However, climate change resulting in the widening desertification and rising sea-levels present opportunities for major engineering projects and potential ‘big business’ ventures. For example, by guiding the sea-level ‘overflow’ into areas with limited water such as Sudan, Ethopia or the Sahara desert, a positive outcome could be extracted from a crisis. Business can be created by supplying the answers which may save cities such as London, Venice and New York from flooding, whilst regenerating water-starved countries in Africa and Asia. The other side to the argument is that technology will become available to reverse or counter-act global warming, and indeed BT predict that the hole in the Ozone layer will have disappeared by the 2050’s. However such optimism is not shared by the  majority of environmental experts who fear consequences of Armageddon proportions in the not to distant future.

New technology is continuously being developed, with today’s ideas becoming tomorrow’s reality. New fuels, greater computer capabilities and advanced machinery should all play a major role over the coming years. Many production lines are presently almost fully automated, so the question is what will be the next step technologically? Will computers / robots carry out the administrative / supervisor roles as well as the production ones? Will we see an Artificial Intelligence based Managing Director, and if so who are his/hers stakeholders? Will new technological advancement make companies more efficient and LEAN, but ultimately lead to a race of AI based humanoids running a world where humans are no longer the dominant species? These are questions which cannot be answered at present, but simply considered as a possibility.

With new technology will come new pharmaceutical advancements. Cures for diseases such as AIDS and cancer may be just ‘upon the horizon’, while who is to say age reversal treatments or life prolonging tablets will not be as common as vitamin tablets in 20 years time? Such advancements would create huge new business opportunities, with an even larger and older population businesses would have to adapt to service a new consumer group with new ideas, views and desires.

The growth of nations such as China and India will have a considerable impact on the business world. With huge populations (China 1.3 billion and India 1.1 billion) willing to work in ‘inhumane’ working conditions for negligible wages, it is difficult for westernised developed countries to compete on price and output. Whilst quality may be an issue on some products from these countries at present, eventually they will gain the experience to match and maybe surpass western standards. However, as Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of Human Needs’ explains, people’s expectations rise over time. Thus the people of China will not tolerate such hardships indefinitely, and will eventually demand parity with their western counterparts. This is already evident in India where I.T. personnel previously earning around 25% of their American counterparts salary, are now demanding around 70%.

The possibility of a major war or conflict can never be ignored. The world wars severely slowed down many aspects of business, but also accelerated technology in the form of weaponry, vehicles and munitions. Most nations are spending heavily at present in developing and manufacturing highly technical weapons. Should a Third World War occur, the results could catastrophic. The effect this would have on the World is obvious, but it could equally have a massive effect on business with the emphasis possibly changing on which countries to deal with. Many countries who have been involved in conflicts often gain many allies, and thus such partnerships continue through business once the conflict is over.

Space travel and exploration has long been viewed as the ‘next logical step’ of mankind. In 1969, when man first stepped foot on the moon it was envisaged that regular space travel would exist in the next decades. Political wrangling, disasters, international conflicts and economic issues have slowed down the progression, but it is highly likely that at some point in the future a major emphasis is placed on exploring our neighbouring planets and beyond. The previously mentions events such as climate change, limited resources and fuels, growing populations combined with man’s ambition to always achieve more may be the driving factors behind ‘big business’ investing heavily in space exploration.

Much of international business is based on fluctuations in countries currency. Therefore, in future years we may see a World currency, which all countries adapt to. This would make trade between countries much easier, yet would be open to misuse and corruption if not policed correctly.

Cultural and language barriers between business people has often been the cause of many issues. With business transactions increasing becoming international, such issues must be addressed and overcome. Religions, such as Islam, which dictate how believers lead every function of their life could become increasingly prominent in deciding which countries do business with each other.

2020 looks to be an exciting, scary and complex year, but there again, put yourself back to 1998 and look how the World has changed since then!!

Source by Ian Worthington

Finance Jobs – Q & A about Finance Jobs

Planning to get into the finance industry? Well there is a lot you will want to know about the much hyped industry before you actually join in. It is indeed one of the most popular career choices today and finance careers are indeed looked upon as golden careers. Finance jobs today pay the best salaries in the job industry and you should stop worrying about the recession coz it is almost over. The finance industry has almost completely recovered from the recession and is back to making a steady progress. Fresh investment is flowing in and finance seems to be thriving like the good old times.

There are many avenues to finance jobs today. Government finance jobs promise you job security and are still a popular preference for many. In fact there are many government institutions which have a good intake for finance jobs. Except for government banks and financial institutions almost every government office does need a finance department.

Now if you are really ambitious and have huge set goals for the future the private sector is where you must concentrate. It’s not that one cannot develop in a government organization but there are many limitations to this growth which are absent in the private sector. There is a huge requirement for corporate finance jobs owing to the big scale corporatization of the business industry. Be it multinational companies or small local companies almost every organization is heading towards corporatization which again is a great advantage for finance aspirants.

Now how to begin a career in finance? The first thing you need is a strong educational background. Make sure you do your academics well and score the best of grades coz these are the only things which will help you in the initial years in finance. You firstly need to graduate from a reputed college for which you will need excellent high school grades. If you are still in high school this is the right time. Start getting serious about your education today itself.

After this you will need to get into one of the best finance internships available. Internships are one of the best ways to learn more about the finance industry. On the job training at an internship will groom the finance professional in you. You will also get a chance to interact with some of the big guns in the finance industry this way. It helps with developing a network in your industry which is very essential to grow high. This network not only helps you with job opportunities in finance but also ensures that your work moves on smoothly no matter where you are.

After the internship you should get into an entry level finance job. It is very essential that you give your 100% in these jobs as the competition is humongous and to leave an impression you have to prove your worth. Do not dream of reaching the skies in a day rather work to achieve your ambitions in a slow and steady way.

Source by Silas Reed

Financial Accounting in Health Care

The health services industry continues to deliver services to patients through various arrangements such insurers, self payers and government programs. However, the institutions need to observe financial health and accounting practices in order to gauge their performance. This is whether such organizations provide for profit or not-for profit health care.

Financial management

One element of financial management in the heath care organizations is heath care revenue cycle. This entails working with various payers, the government agencies and individuals in verifying payments and collecting revenue (James, 2004). The health care providers strive in having efficient billing systems, manage payer contracts and enhance cash collections. Another aspect of health care financial management is profitability and financial analysis. Hospitals and other health care providers frequently loose revenue and face escalated cost of providing the services due to the overwhelming data and complex reimbursement systems. As such, health providers also strive to provide on demand financial accounting in all departments for better monitoring of profitability. Indeed, the payer mix and accounts receivable are also analyzed. Financial management also involves planning for the future. The heath providers utilize the history of the financial statements in forecasting targets and making projections, enabling use of past data in decision making, use the information in delivering quality services to the patients and streamlining the its functions with the providers. Finally financial management involves internal control and accounting. This could involve managing and controlling expenditure of the common supplies like medicine and other medical products which constitute a third of the operating expenses.

Financial Reporting

According to (Sarah, Elizabeth and Victoria, 2001) the hospitals obtain revenue by providing medical services, non medical services, through donations sourced from individuals, institutions and other donors or through returns from investments. This can generally be categorized into three where firstly operating revenue is obtained for the care given to a patient. On the other hand, revenue is also obtained from non patient care activities (Sarah et al, 2001).  Finally non operating revenue could be obtained from other business activities in which a heath care provider is involved. Services which can help a health care provider like a hospital to create operating revenue are the shops and other hospitality services-related businesses that may be within its premises. On the other hand the non operating revenue may be derived in investments made for instance in real estates, stock, securities and donations received.

In studying the health care finances it may be necessary to study some terms synonymous with the environment. For instance, a charge is the price the hospital or any other heath care provider has determined for each type of care being provided. However, the sticker price is usually subject to negotiation. A payment on the other hand refers to the amount of money the heath care provider actually receives for the service provided. It is worth noting that, this amount varies among the insurers and the individuals who are not insured. Finally there is also the cost which refers to the cost the hospital incurs in providing the service (Sarah et al, 2001).

There are some financial reporting practices that are unique with the heath care providers. For instance, the bad debts in a health care provider must be written off and then recorded as expenses. In addition, for any credit the provider gets it is required to pay an interest expense for the funds that have been borrowed. AICPA (1996) observes that the heath care provider do not pay the non salaried physicians who are instead paid by the insurer or the patient. Further more, the cost of equipment and other assets is also spread over the estimated life with the appropriate portion of the cost of purchasing the product treated as an expense with each accounting period. This spreading of cost over the estimated life of an asset is referred to as depreciation for tangible goods and amortization for intangible goods.

The financial statements for a health care provider are prepared by an independent auditing firm. In particular, the auditing firm examines the evidence that supports the disclosures in the statements. There are several documents used in the financial accounting of a health care provider. In brief, the income statement generally offers a presentation on how the provider has gotten the money and how money has been spent. The total margin is reflected in the income statement and is indicative of the provider’s performance and profitability.  However, non-profit providers may make profit but is ploughed back into the operations and not awarded as dividends. The excess revenues over expenses could also be hidden in instances where the contractual settlements with the payer are not certain.

The balance sheet is another statement which gives a quick reflection on the provider’s financial health. For instance receivables could be recorded as an asset with the accounts payable being recorded as liability. On the other hand, a cash flow statement gives an accurate account of the money out and in after subtracting the operating expenses. AICPA (1996) continues to observe that, non-profit health care providers are required by the law to file an IRS Form 990 on its financial information.

Source by Forest

The Development and History of Tri-Cone Drill Bits

The history of tri-cone drill bit development stretches back over 100 years. It may seem strange to think that such a precision piece of equipment from the present has roots dating back to 1908, but the road to the level of innovation in modern tri-cone bits is a long one.

Howard Hughes and the beginning of a business empire

Before there was the tri-cone drill with its 3 interlocking rollers Howard R. Hughes Sr. invented a dual-cone rotary drill which revolutionized the oil drilling rigs of the time. When he founded the Hughes Tool Company in 1908 (then the Sharp-Hughes tool company until 1912) he had a patent for the first roller cutter drill ever made and had founded of one of America’s most notable corporate dynasties. When he died in 1924, ownership of the company passed to his famous son, Howard Hughes jr. who had himself declared legally an adult so he could fend off relatives squabbling over his father’s will and take full control of the company that would soon create the tri-cone drill bit.

The young Mr. Hughes and his powered stranglehold on the drilling industry take off!

In addition to a high-flying life of Hollywood glamour, gorgeous actresses, death defying aviation, and producing the original 1932 film “Scarface” (50 years before Al Pacino made it famous in the better known remake) Howard Hughes Jr. was also a business magnet who saw the tri-cone drill bit invented by a Hughes Tool Company researcher, and reinvented the oil drilling industry a second time. Five years before the invention of this bit, Cemented Carbide, an early Tungsten Carbide alloy was developed and brought over to America. Although not always combined at first, the Hughes company patent along with the new synthetic metals allowed the Hughes Tool Company to become the only way for Western drilling companies to use tri-cone drill bits. The speed and competitive advantage of these early bits was massive compared to the technology previously available, and every serious drilling company had no choice but to use Hughes brand bits… or move to Russia for Soviet knock-offs.

The patent expires and drill bit race is on

In 1951 the Hughes company patent on the tri-cone drill bit ran out, and competitors around the world began to start manufacturing drill bits with the superior design. Although the Hughes company initially maintained a huge market share thanks to the initial patent, the number of competitors reduced this dramatically over time. As of 2000 they no longer had market dominance, and as of 2011 the company was acquired by a conglomerate.

Contemporary tri-cone drill bits

Luckily, Tri-Cone drill bit innovations didn’t stop with the expiry of the Hughes patent. Additional improvements in manufacturing allowed TCI (Tungsten Carbide Insert) drill bits to become much more commonly used. Tungsten carbide inserts allow bits to have remarkable hardness, endurance, and strength, while making the shaft out of more conventional alloys means the drilling rig does not have to worry about the material’s brittleness under extreme pressures. Tri-cone bits have also seen significant innovation the design of the drill bits themselves: Open roller bearings are the conventional standard, but sealed roller bearings improve the life span of the bit dramatically. Sealed roller bears can also incorporate journal bearings for excellent durability and resistance to wear and tear. Innovation is a constant process and further refinement continues to improve drilling capacity around the world.

Source by L R Lindsay

The Highest Form of Persuasion Revealed

Influence is a key element in mastering the techniques of Magnetic Persuasion. Influence is the highest form of persuasion. With influence, people are spurred on to action because of your character, not your maneuvers. Persuasion is what you do or say, but influence is who you are.

How does one gain this type of influence? How do you gain a strong enough influence over people that they will act simply because an idea came from you? How about having a strong enough influence over people that they are still compelled to move forward even when you’re not around?

Presence is the ability to empower and influence others into believing in you, trusting in you, and jumping on the bandwagon. You give them the energy they need to bring to pass the results you want. You help them see themselves in the future carrying out your vision. They become excited and energized by your passion and enthusiasm. They are magnetized and motivated by your charisma. They are lifted and inspired by your optimism and expectations. In essence, you’re a source of empowerment, encouragement, inspiration, and permanency to them.

For some, charisma is a mysterious attribute. It’s challenging to describe someone who exudes charisma because there’s really no way to quantify the effect this kind of person seems to have on others. It seems that you either have charisma or you don’t. Charisma is not leadership, assertiveness, or enthusiasm and it’s not exactly personality either. It’s its own unique characteristic. Charisma empowers others to like you, even if they don’t know much about you and even when there hasn’t been enough time to develop trust in you. If you have charisma, not only do people want to be around you, but, whether they realize it or not, they also want to be influenced by you. Charisma gives you power, allegiance, and devotion with your audience, without leaving them feeling powerless and it creates instant support. So, are you born with charisma or is it learned? The answer to both questions is yes! Some attributes are inherent; others can be acquired.

The word “charisma” comes from the Greek goddess Charis. Charis’ character was one of total beauty and charity. Today, the word has to do with an individual’s magnetism, intensity, vivaciousness, and so on. Gerry Spence’s said it best: Charisma is energy from the heart zone. If the speaker has no feeling, there is nothing to transfer. Charisma occurs when the speaker’s feelings are transferred in the purest form to another. Charisma is not a diluted feeling. It is not disguised. It is a raw feeling. Charisma is the passing of our pure energy, our pure passion to the other.

People who are charismatic often hold us in awe. Their energy prods us, motivates us, and inspires us. They fulfill our need to have heroes. We feel better for having met them, seen them, listened to them, and interacted with them. Why and how do they have this effect on us?

So, how would one go about developing charisma? Here are eight ways:

1. Develop self-confidence in yourself and your message. Don’t appear nervous or out of balance. Be confident that you possess self-worth and know your message.

2. Have a lighter side. Find your sense of humor and happiness. Have fun and don’t take life too seriously. Learn to laugh at yourself.

3. Have great presence and energy. Project a presence of the Five C’s of Trust: character, competence, confidence, credibility, and congruence.

4. Have a definite opinion about your subject. Be knowledgeable and make sure that knowledge is based on a solid foundation. Develop a sense of the audience’s emotion and conviction for your subject.

5. Look good. Make sure your clothing, hair, shoes, and jewelry match your message’s tone. Dress the part.

6. Be able to inspire and uplift. Be sensitive to people and their needs. Develop rapport with your audience. Connect with them and become a great listener.

7. Be organized and easy to follow. Make your points connected and your structure clear.

8. Be dramatic, unique, and enticing. Be interesting to be around. Make sure the things you talk about are exciting. Tell spellbinding stories.


Learning how to persuade and influence will make the difference between hoping for a better income and having a better income. It is the missing puzzle piece that will crack the code to dramatically increase your income, improve your relationships, and help you get what you want, when you want, and win friends for life. Ask yourself how much money and income you have lost because of your inability to persuade and influence. Think about it. Sure you’ve seen some success, but think of the times you couldn’t get it done. Has there ever been a time when you did not get your point across? Were you unable to convince someone to do something? Have you reached your full potential? Are you able to motivate yourself and others to achieve more and accomplish their goals? What about your relationships? Imagine being able to overcome objections before they happen, know what your prospect is thinking and feeling, feel more confident in your ability to persuade.

Source by Kurt Mortensen

How Often is the World Cup of Soccer Held?

The World Cup is soccer’s biggest stage – it is the championship of the most widely played sport in the all of the world. The talk, preparation and qualifying for each incarnation of the World Cup tournament seems to be going on all the time – but the final of soccer’s biggest tournament only take place during a one month period every four years.

Many fans, clubs and organizations argue that the World Cup tournament itself, as well as the sport of soccer would benefit greatly from increasing the frequency of soccer’s world championship tournament. Some present very valid points and cite that other major sporting events that hold tournaments on an international level are capable of organizing those tournaments once every year.

There is no doubt that the World Cup’s allure wouldn’t be hurt by holding the tournament every three or even every two years. It would probably increase soccer’s international popularity and would certainly do well to increase the tournaments revenue potential – holding the tournament every two years would, in effect, double the amount of revenue created by the biggest international sports tournament. Reducing the number of years between World Cup tournaments would most likely also allow the qualifying team’s players to be more recognizable to fans – the players would be in front of the fans and on a big stage potentially twice as many times during their careers. This could potentially make fans feel more connected and attached to the players on the World Cup teams and possibly even cause an increase in the amount of people who tune in to watch the World Cup finals.

Why Every Four Years?

World Cup purists argue that every four years is ideal for the tournament and it is relatively unlikely that any change in World Cup frequency will actually occur – at least within the near future. It does take quite a bit of preparation to get ready for a month long tournament which draws in teams from more than thirty countries and fans from probably more nations than that.

The host country is voted on and selected long before the tournament will actually be held and the lengths to which the organizers go to ensure that everything is not just prepared, but perfect for each World Cup tournament are truly exhaustive. Other major sports tournaments may host players and fans from all over the world but few, if any can match the sheer magnitude of the World Cup tournament.

More than 200 countries will vie for a spot in the final phase of the World Cup tournament in 2010 to be held in South Africa, and of those more than 200, only thirty one teams will make the cut to appear in the World Cup (the South African team receives an automatic bye to compete as the host nation, making the total team count an even thirty two.) Many believe that trying to cram all of the qualifying and all of the necessary preparation into a shorter time period would hurt the quality and the overall success of the tournament – and that could very well be true.

The only other sporting events that are truly comparable (even bigger than the World Cup), are the Summer and Winter Olympic Games, which are both also held once every four years due to all of the preparation of the destination and the athletes who are to be involved.

Holding the tournament only once every four years only adds to the majesty of the World Cup and contributes to the sheer desire and determination of the many teams involved to first make the cut to the finals and then compete for the prestigious title of World Cup Champion.

Source by Amy Nutt

Crystals That Help You Battle With Fatigue and Stress

How many times after enjoying a nice lunch, you feel like you are prepared for a nap, or maybe after a workout, or a run in the beach you seem to feel exhausted… this sort of afternoon slump may be alleviated using crystals instead of caffeine drinks or sugary snacks.

*To hike up your afternoon fatigue; crystals like Ruby, Amber and Red Jasper are good options. Ruby and Amber are reloading stones, and will help jumpstart your system. You can complement with Aventurine, to add optimism to the mix.

Having plenty of energy is vital to fulfilling our lives; to enjoy life, one needs a good supply of energy. We can restore and balance our energy levels with a proper diet, rest and sleep… also with the use of crystals.

You can try some of these remedies:

* Amethyst, Rose Quartz, Carnelian, Pyrite and Fire Agate, any of these can be carried around the sacral and base chakra area for tiredness, add Sunstone, Hematite, Ametrine, and Dioptase if you’re fatigued. Use them in combination with Rutilated Quartz, Smokey Quartz or Clear Quartz for an energy boost.

What happens when you’re so wore down and you feel you may sleep for a week? Your mind just won’t switch off? Take a cup of chamomile tea, listen to some calming music or practice meditation? Go for it!

* To bring a more relaxing sleep you can place Rose Quartz and Amethyst beneath your pillow; these quieting stones will help greatly if you feel overwhelmed or experiencing insomnia. Blue Lace Agate can be held in your hand to help you relax your entire body.

* Lolite is a crystal that aids in the quality of your sleep and helps with headaches, mental tension and eyestrain, by calming those overtaxed nerves.

Fatigue may be caused by illness, stress, over work, etc. if you carry a high vibration crystal or stone, its energy will merge with your own correcting and restoring balance.

*Apophyllite is a high vibrational crystal which can raise your energy and assist with fatigue… Try lying down, with it placed just above your crown and a Hematite and Clear Quartz below each foot, along with a Rose Quartz in the middle of your chest.

* For a quick fix, or to re-energize try sitting down with your feet on the ground and holding a clear quartz in each hand pointing inward. Breathe deep and slowly in a relaxed state for 15 minutes. This will give you an instant energy boost.

So, whether you’re a long-distance runner, or simply living the day by day issues… these crystals can help you battle with stress and fatigue and remain relaxed, serene and energy recharged.

Source by Monique Solares

The Importance Of Global Warming Awareness 2007

Composite findings of about 2,000 scientists do not augur well for future years due to the alarming rate the earth’s lower atmosphere is warming up. The world is being warned of hunger and thirst for millions (even billions) due to global warming. The continuous emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane has worsened the situation especially in the most recent years. Global warming has triggered climate change in all parts of the world, most apparent of which is the warming of the polar zones which has flushed water from the melted ice to the oceans, disrupting the ecology and the affecting the lifestyle of thousands of people.

Millions of homes (pegged at 7 million) could be washed away by sea levels that are continuously on the swell. The Great Barrier Reef, the pride of Australia and the refuge of most of the world’s most treasured sea creatures, (the living reef in itself considered as the biggest organism in the world) could die in just decades, the same reports say. This is part of the draft of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Global Warming Awareness 2007 or IPCC. This highly compelling study from IPCC is a significant development it has always been reputed for no-nonsense (neutral), highly statistical (cautious) reporting.

Australia is a focal point in one part of the reports, warning on the effects of warmer and more acidic seas on the Great Barrier Reef (mainly coral bleaching) by 2030. This detrimental effect is caused by the death of the corals, leaving only its skeleton (used to be sold but is now prohibited as decorative items tourist shops).

In the report, scientists say that the coast northeast of Australia known as The World Heritage would be most damaged by warmer temperatures. This means extinction of more than 133,000 square miles of underwater living wonders.

Over the past century (reference year 1900), global temperatures on the average have risen from 0.7 to 0.8 degrees. This has been documented as the culprit in the ongoing death or bleaching of the Indian coral reefs, as well as those in the Indian Ocean. Warmer temperatures also means more evaporation increasing the concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere, another influencing factor that has increased the greenhouse effect over the oceans by 4% over the past 35 years.

Once temperature increase reaches 2 – 3 degrees above that in 1900, Australias alpine zones will totally be gone. Another scary consequence would be the imminent total destruction of Amazon forest system of South America. The greatest casualty: biodiversity.

As with any late realizations, global warming awareness is not without tradeoffs in regards to human and economic costs, which is relatively higher in poor countries. Many African countries are now being debilitated by very serious water shortages. Flooding of coastal areas in low-lying regions is now a common phenomenon. Hardest hit are Bangladesh and many islands along the Pacific.

Other alarming consequences of global warming include:

Killer heat waves . They will be worse, will last longer, and will be more frequent than that of summer 2003 which hit southern Europe.

Stronger, more destructive tropical storms and hurricanes. There will also be marked increase in rainfall and flooding of coastlines.

High probability of ice-free summers in the Arctic, ongoing melting of mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets.

Significant rise in sea levels. Even if carbon dioxide levels will be stabilized, the world will still stand witness to higher sea levels 0.43 meters higher in 2100 and 0.8 meters by 2300.

Source by Angel Abdulnor

Cheaper Tea Than Teavana – Where To Buy Inexpensive, High-Quality Loose-Leaf Tea

Teavana is a popular chain of tea stores in the United States. Although the teas sold by Teavana are consistently above-average quality, there is concern that Teavana’s prices are high. My personal opinion is that although Teavana does sell top-notch tea, I also think that it is possible to obtain similar products from other companies for lower prices.

This article outlines some of the other sources of buying high-quality loose leaf tea, sources that are cheaper than Teavana. Inexpensive does not necessarily mean low quality. I have tried to cover a broad range of prices in this article, so I will cover companies priced slightly lower than Teavana to those offering more bargain buys, but I will focus on companies that sell high-quality loose-leaf tea for reasonable prices.

Upton Tea Imports:

Upton is a very different sort of company from Teavana; it focuses on pure teas and single-origin teas, rather than blends. Its true strengths lie in black teas from India, such as Darjeeling and Assam, although it has quite a selection from China as well. Upton has many offerings which are priced well under $10 for 100-120grams, or about 1/4 a pound.

Ahmad Tea:

Ahmad is a brand of tea, based in London, which is marketed primarily towards a middle-eastern audience. Ahmad is the most popular brand of tea in Iran, and is widely available in boxes in middle-eastern stores. I find it to be an excellent choice for strong black and green teas; many of their offerings are under $10 a pound, yet have impressive quality for this price.

Sustainablity-focused companies: Rishi, Arbor Teas, Shanti Teas:

Three companies that I also like to recommend are Rishi Tea, Arbor Teas, and Shanti Teas. These companies tend to have significantly higher prices than Upton or Ahmad, but the higher prices are associated with an increased selection of organic certified and fair trade certified teas. These companies are all leaders in sustainability. Rishi, being the oldest of the three, is the best-known and the one whose teas I have had the most experience with. If you are going to pay top dollar for your tea, I would recommend buying from one of these companies; many of their teas are still cheaper than Teavana, but you will be paying to empower the tea producers, protect the environment, and preserve local traditions of production in developing countries rather than just paying for the high rents in high-end shopping malls that you are paying for when you buy Teavana’s tea.

In summary:

Teavana’s teas are high quality, but are also high-priced, and are in my opinion, overpriced. There is no company exactly like Teavana, but there are many good alternatives from which you can buy loose-leaf tea at reasonable prices. My personal recommendations of companies to buy from include Upton, Ahmad Tea, and the sustainability-focused companies like Rishi, Arbor, and Shanti Tea, which have a lot of organic and fair trade certified offerings.

Source by Alex Zorach