Wine Cellar Lighting Information And Management Tips

Aside from humidity, vibration and temperature, lighting is one of the factors that will determine the quality of your cellar condition. The wine’s ability to produce sweet and delicious tasting wine depends on your management techniques of these factors.

The Importance of Proper Wine Cellar Lighting

The selection of wine cellar lighting must be done with utmost care because improper lighting can have an adverse effect on the room temperature and consequently on the wine’s quality and aging process. A good light is necessary in order to stack and organize the wines properly, select the bottles you need, read labels and find your way through the wine storage. If you have a commercial wine cellar, your light fixtures will allow you to showcase your wine collection to your prospective customers. It may not be as indispensable as wine cooling system because wines can thrive well even in dark caves but a proper lighting system can have an impact on the wines visual appeal and the marketability of your product.

Because wines are sensitive to sunlight, most lights used in wine storage have UV ray protective coating to prevent wine spoilage or premature aging. Of all lights, the recessed can light is the most popular because it acts as the main light illuminating all the four corners of your wine storage area. It comes in different sizes, shapes and styles and has the ability to minimize glare and control room brightness.

Another lighting that is easier to install as compared to recessed can lights is the track lighting or spotlight. It is intended for accent lighting in vertical display wine racks and comes in varying lamp styles with movable track heads shining in the direction you like. It can also be mounted on walls, ceilings or cables.

LED (light emission diode) lighting is used by many wine collectors because it is energy saving, durable and has low heat emission and no harmful UV rays. It is a bit expensive though as compared to other lighting materials, but considering the longevity of the product’s life span and its low energy usage, a cellar owner can have more savings by using LED lights.

To be functional and effective, cellar lighting should emit as little heat as possible. This you can do by using incandescent bulbs or other products which has UV protective coating and so they produce less UV lights over fluorescent lights.

Exposure to UV rays, otherwise known as “light shock” can stimulate your wine’s stable organic compounds thus damaging your wine. A few hours of light is fine and this will not likely cause damage to your wine but prolonged light usage tends to exude more heat which could affect your wine’s cooling system. To control the environment, all you need to do is turn off the lights. But then how would you know how much light is enough?

Tips For Managing Your Wine Cellar Lighting

You may use a light timer or switch timer to help regulate light. This is a great wine cellar accessory for controlling your light and is a good safety device. It helps when you accidentally leave on the lights in the wine room.

Use of adjustable lighting or a dim light switch to lower the heat emission of lights thus maintaining the temperature requirement of your cellar. Most of the recessed can lights have this feature.

Provide a switch outside the wine room so that even if you leave the lights on, you won’t have to enter the cellar door once again. With just a push of a button, you can just put off the lights even when you are outside of the room. A light indicator can also be used to remind people in your house or business that there is an unattended light inside the cellar. The added monitoring features that you will install to your wine room can immensely help to achieve proper lighting in your wine area.

Lighting is an integral part of your cellar’s beauty and functionality. The overall mood and décor of your wine room will be enhanced by a good wine cellar lighting design and installation. Your lighting will provide the illumination you need as you store and organize your wine collection and will make the products viewable to your guests.

And so, whether you have a residential or commercial wine cellar or if you’re planning to have one, with proper light and other wine cellaring management techniques, your wine room will not only have an ideal ambiance but it will certainly produce quality wine.

Source by Juliette Johnson

How to Obtain Title For Abandoned Real Estate Through Adverse Possession in the State of California

What is Adverse Possession? How can I obtain title to real estate?

In a nutshell adverse possession is a process where a person or an investor can obtain the ownership or title of real property from another person because the owner has abandoned the property. This is done by simply taking possession of that property in the manner prescribed by state law.

In doing so, you can, literally acquire ownership or title of the real property for just paying the back delinquent real estate taxes and the cost to file a quiet title lawsuit establishing that you obtained title to the property through adverse possession. In other words, you can take title of valuable property for a incredible discount.

The Law of Adverse Possession

The laws governing adverse possession is local state (or, in Canada, territorial law); consequently an Abandoned property investor must look into the specific laws of a specific state or Canadian territory where the real property is located. Since the laws are different dramatically from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and can often be confusing, anyone wishing to take title to real property through adverse possession should contact a knowledgeable attorney before attempting to do so.

In order for you to begin understanding the requirements of Adverse Possession let’s look at a specific example. Below is a closer look at th California Adverse Possession law. We will use this law to identify and explain some of the more common terms used in Adverse Possession.

California Adverse Possession Law

Briefly, California state law states that Real Estate investors wanting to obtain title to another person’s real property through adverse possession MUST satisfy all the following Requirements:

1.That the Abandoned property investor’s possession was held under either (1) a claim of right or (2) under color of title:

2.That the Abandoned property investor’s possession was actual, open and notorious;

3.That the Abandoned property investor’s possession was hostile, adverse an exclusive;

4.That the Abandoned property investor’s possession was continuous and uninterrupted for a period of five years;

5.That the Abandoned property investor paid th real property taxes during that five-year period.

Possession must be held under either (1) a claim of right or (2) under color of title.

The California statutes governing adverse possession and as well as the statutes of most other states make a distinction between claiming adverse possession based upon a “claim of title founded upon a written instrument or judgment or decree” (often referred to as a claim under color title) and claiming adverse possession based upon “a claim of title exclusive of any other right, but not founded upon a written instrument, judgement, or decree” (often referred to as a claim as either a claim of right, see California Code of civil procedures Section 322 and 323. As to such claim under claim o right, see Code of Civil Procedures Section 324 and 325.

Basically a claim of adverse possession based upon color color of title is one where the claimant(Abandoned Property Investor) took in good faith possession under a deed (or some other written instrument) or judicial decree that appeared to transfer good title, but was defective. For example, a tax sale investor might take adverse possession through color of title for real estate bought at a California county tax-defaulted sale where the sale was conducted improperly and, consequently, the deed was void.

“Claim of Right” or “Claim of Title”

Abandoned property investors attempting to take title to real estate through the doctrine of adverse possession are generally more interested in taking such title through “claim of right” or “claim of title”. Under this doctrine, an investor merely needs to take actual possession of the property and hold that possession as required by appropriate jurisdictional law.

As might be expected, the requirements to establish adverse possession under a claim of right are (under California law and under the law of most all other states) are more strenuous than those associated with claiming under color of title.

In order to be accurate as the specific requirements for a claim of right refer to the specific state statutes. Again, to be safe consult with a knowledgeable attorney in the county where the property is located.

Possession must be actual

As will be seen below, an abandoned property investor claiming possession under the doctrine of adverse possession does not have to personally occupy or live on the real estate to be in actual possession of the property. However, actually living on the real estate is probably the strongest and clearest evidence that possession is actual.

Possession by tenant as actual possession

Real property can be occupied, lived on, and actually possessed by a tenant under a tenancy agreement. Take, for instance, if you look at the California appellate case of Traeger v. Friedman (1947) 79 CA 2d 151. In that case, the adverse possession claimant took possession of a apartment building through tenants and, then, managed and rented for five years. She evn paid the real property taxes out of the rent. The California court held that she had met the actual possession requirement needed to perfect title under adverce possession.

Possession is deemed actual if lands is “protected by a substantial enclosure”, “usually cultivated or improved”

If the adverse possession is claimed based on a claim of right, then California Code of Civil Procedure Sections 324 and 325 apply.

A abandoned property investor’s possession is deemed to be in actual, open and notorious possession of specific real property under a claim of right when that person has either

1.”protected” that property “by a substantial inclosure” OR

2.That person has “usually cultivated” OR

3.Has “improved” tht property.

If the real property being taken through adverse possession is a lot and acreage and cannot be actually possessed (i.e., lived on) then that property must be either “protected…by a substantial inclosure”, “usually cultivated”, or “usually improved”.

If the property is protected by a substantial inclosure, then the inclosure must be “substantial” enough to give the true owner notice of the investor’s Claim of adverse possession during the entire prescriptive period. Older Cases hold that the inclosure must be substantial enough and remain so throughout the prescriptive period of five years and protect all sides of the property claimed from intrusion by cattle or other animals. If the inclosure is so damaged as not to be able to protect all sides of the property from such intrusion, then the Abandoned property investor or claimant must promptly repair that damage inclosure or risk being found by the court to have not met this requirement.

Meeting ANY one of the three alternative, meets the actual possession requirements for adverse possession even though the Abandoned property investor or claimant does not live on the property.

Additionally, California cases have held that although “grazing” or “pasturage” is not mentioned in the Code of Civil Procedure Section 325 reproduced above, it is a method whereby an investor can take actual possession.

Possession Must Be Open And Notorious

Basically, an owner of real estate will not lose that real estate through the doctrine of adverse possession unless the manner in which the investor holds actual possession would provide reasonable notice of that possession if the owner inspected the property. Repairs and improvements made to houses such as painting the ouside of the house, keeping up the outside ground, etc. are examples of such actions.

However, an owner can lose title to real estate through adverse possession even through he or she is never actually aware of the possession because the owner never visited the real estate to discover the improvements made by the abandoned property investor.

Possession Was Hostile, Adverse And Exclusive.

Basically, if the abandoned property investor or claimant is in possession under color of title, then that possession is deemed to be adverse and hostile to the true owner and it is not necessary to offer any further proof.

However if the Abandoned property investor or claimant is in possession under claim of title, then the claimant must prove that the possession was hostile and adverse. The word “hostile” does not mean that the possession was “overtly antagonistic” to the owner; it means simply that such possession is “inconsistent” with that of the true owner.)

It must be shown that the possession was in violation of the true owner’s property rights and that it should give rise in the owner a reason to begin an action to terminate the Abandoned property investor or claimant’s possession or use.

Possession of the property with the owner’s permission is not hostile or adverse. see California Civil Code Section 813 which provides a better legal explanation of this process.

Basically what the California Civil Code Section 813 means that the owner of the property can give permission for the use of that property by the general public or specific individuals. The statute further states that: “In the event of use by other than the general public, any such notices, to be effective, shall also be served by registered mail on the user.

The claimant’s use must also be exclusive, use of that property by the legal owner or any other person except the claimant or abandoned property investor or a tenant of the claimant or abandoned property investor holding possession on behalf of that person will probably defeat a claim of title through adverse possession.

Possession Was Continuous And Uninterrupted For Five Years.

This requirement can be found in Civil Code Section 1007 when read together with Code of Civil Procedure Sections 318, 319, 321, 322, and 325. Most specifically, Code of Civil procedure Sections 325 provides:

“provided, however, that in no case shall adverse possession be considered established under the provisions of any section or sections of this code, unless it shall be shown that the land has been occupied and claimed for the period of five years continuosly, and the party or persons, their predecessors and grantor’s, have paid all the taxes, state, county, or municipal, which have been levied and assessed upon such land.”

The requirement does not mean, however, that the investor must be physically on the land every day for five years. For instance, if actual possession of a home or other rental real estate is held by tenants on behalf of the adverse possessor or abandoned property investor, then ordinary vacancies will not disrupt the continuity of the possession.

So, if an investor were to take possession of rental property, for example, and there were normal vacancies that occur, these vacancies would not be considered a violation if the five year occupancy requirement. It also means that the investor does not have to live on the property to make this claim. That means you can claim adverse possession at multiple properties as long as the property is safe and liveable for tenants. That means a positive cash flow while waiting in the prescribed period and also without your physical stay at your property.

Claimant Paid The Real Property Taxes During That Five Year Period.

See Code of Civil Procedure Section 325 which governs this requirement

The Abandoned property investor or claimant must prove that he or she has paid all taxes that have been levied and assessed against the real property claimed during the entire five year period. A failure to pay taxes assessed for any one year will defeat a claim for adverse possession. Then the claimant must also pay any delinquent taxes outstanding for years prior to the start of the claim for adverse possession. For more details please refer to the case of Los Angeles v. Coffey (1963) 243 CA 2d 121,125.

Under the law of the state of California, if a Abandoned property investor meets all the requirements of the law of adverse possession under claim of title, then that person becomes the true legal owner of the real estate that has been abandoned. If the legal title of the real property was held by the former owner with no outstanding liens that superceeds the tax lien, then the investor will have acquired the real estate for, basically, just five or more years worth of back delinquent real property taxes or for just a small investment.

So, What Should A Abandoned Real Property Investor Look For?

The two most important principles of the law of adverse possession is that a Abandoned real property investor wants to see are the following:

1.The ability to take adverse possession under Claim of right or claim of title as opposed to color of title and

2.A relatively short prescriptive period. The period of time the Abandoned property investor must adversely possess the real property before that investor can obtain title to the real property.

You are probably asking yourself, Why?

Because in the state of California, the period or prescriptive period is five years based upon the California Code of Civil Procedure. However in some states the period can last from 10, 15 or 20 years until you get title through adverse possession.

Source by Josue Zengotita

Every Farm Business, No Matter How Small, Needs PC-Based Record Keeping & Accounts Automation

The Reasons Some Business Owners Give Against Adopting Computers ACTUALLY Provide Perfect Justifications For Them To Do So!

The irony about most of the excuses these business owners give for not wanting to adopt computers, is that those reasons in themselves provide GREAT JUSTIFICATION for the owners to employ computer-aided monitoring of their business’ performance. Among other benefits, such as time saving and increased human resources productivity, doing so facilitates better informed and timely decision making! This is because the use of computers (via software automation) enhances more COMPREHENSIVE analysis.

With proper planning, including use of standard manual data recording formats which subsequently serve as “source” documents for making computer entries, the perception of “difficulty” in the use of computer automation can be removed from the minds of many.

The use of computers DOES NOT have to cost you an arm and a leg. You do not for instance have to go about it in the manner a multinational would ! I do ALL my work on a computer that I have now owned for four years. With a 256MB RAM, 40GB Hard Drive, and other standard features, it cost me less than N70,000(N135 naira = $1.00 US Dollar approx as at time of writing this) to get it, and today would cost round about the same amount or possibly less, what with all the competition. Many business owners out here will probably find that THIS type of computer system specification I use will be just right for them.

So what does N70,000 over a four year period come to? Very little, when you think about what you will be able to do. Consider also that I STILL have no plans to replace the computer any time soon because I know I can get it upgraded to deliver higher performance, at a fraction of the cost of purchase.

Aside from the computer, you need nothing more than your hands (for typing your records); a spreadsheet application like MS Excel(to post your data into, for subsequent analysis); or you could use a custom spreadsheet software I can build for you to make posting your data for analysis and accounts preparation EVEN easier.

What we are talking about here is a LONG TERM solution that will pay for itself many times over by SAVING you hundreds of hours of effort/time PLUS it will eliminate the pain of having to worry about making sense of what’s happening in your farm business.

For instance, some farm owners cannot even be sure if they are making profits or running at a loss, because the thought of sitting down to do ALL the needed calculations is just too DAUNTING. That’s a problem you are not likely to have if you adopt the SIMPLE computer based automation I have described above for YOUR farm business.

Computation Of Your Farm KPIs Will Take MUCH LESS Time & Effort When Automated

In order to really get maximum value from computing the five(5) Key indicators we describe as essential for monitoring your business’ performance, the use of computer based automation cannot be over-emphasised.

If you really want to operate your business in a manner that ensures you don’t get overwhelmed by the day to day requirements, you MUST as a matter of priority incorporate computer based automation into your routine data recording, analysis and accounts preparation.

Just imagine how useful it would be, to be able to click your mouse and have displayed on your computer screen ALL the important financial data, especially the five(5) KPIs described here!

You would spend LESS of your time punching a calculator (or asking your operatives/manager to do it), LESS time wondering if ANY data was missed or if there was a wrong input or incorrect calculation method employed. Instead you would be able to focus MORE on thinking about the computed performance indicators against the background of farm management decisions/actions you took over the course of the period for which they were estimated.

What you learn as a result will guide you in taking future decisions – and over time you will be able to ensure MORE consistency in your farm business operations – leading to consistency in output, and by implication, income.

But You Do NOT Even Need To Own A Computer To Automate Your Farm Business Records Keeping/Accounts

YES – that’s right, you don’t! Let me explain why :

1. Not everyone who visits/uses cyber cafes and business centers owns a PC at home – especially here in Nigeria/Africa.

2. Yet most users of cafes and business centers will often produce letters, reports and other documents while in those places, which they will print for use in their work and/or businesses. Sometimes they email the finished documents to associates via the Internet. These are everyday people just like you and I. You probably do the same thing from time to time too!

3. In order to do the above ALL they need to have is MONEY as little as N150 to N200 (N135 = $1.00 US Dollar approx) to gain about ONE hour of access to an Internet connected PC or – one not online which they would use for typing/preparing their documents.

4. The only other thing they would want to own is some removable storage device(like a floppy disk or better still a flash drive etc) on which copies of the documents they produce at the end of their stay in the cafe or Business center can be stored – for retrieval at a later date.

Going by the above therefore, if you don’t feel convinced enough to invest in a computer for your business today, it is obvious that THAT does not stop you from using computer-based software to automate your farm records keeping/analyses and accounts preparation.

I have seen people sit for upwards of four(4) hours at a stretch in a cyber cafe, typing handwritten data from a paper based spreadsheet source containing various tables into a computer-based Excel spreadsheet – adding formula generated totals and other summaries before emailing the completed document to a waiting party in some other geographical locations!

Hopefully those who choose to work this way would have done the maths and can justify having to work that way. It is however DEFINITELY better than having to depend on manual, paper-based and/or calculator-aided preparation of business records/accounts!

Summary – There Really Is No Justifiable Reason NOT To Automate Your Farm Business’ Records & Accounts

You stand to gain MUCH more than you could possibly lose – both in the short and long term by adopting computer-based automation for your farm (and any other) business.

And when we talk about the “long run”, even the person visiting cafes and business centers to work, will eventually be forced to weigh the inconvenience of doing so, PLUS the attendant costs over time, against the many benefits derivable from working on his/her own computer without being under psychological pressure to finish on time so as to avoid having to pay for an extra hour!

In the long run therefore, owning a PC for your business – even if just ONE – will do you, and your business a whole lot of good.

BUT, you can always start by working from a cafe or business center – where using a custom software built for you can even help you work FASTER so you can finish in less time, and therefore PAY LESS to the cafe owner!

Or BETTER STILL, you could do your work in a friend’s place (where you may be able to use a computer for FREE!). Any approach you adopt, so long as it helps you get started with using computer-based automation for your farm business records keeping/accounts, WILL work better than if you continued with manual/calculator-aided methods!

Source by Tayo Solagbade

The Fish We Cook, Porgy and Pompano


It can be called butterfish, cobbler fish, permit or palmetto. No matter what name you give it, the Florida pompano is considered one of the best tasting fish in the ocean. It is a very popular fish in the Florida area both commercially and for sports fishing. Found in the warm waters of the south Atlantic from Cape Cod to Brazil, the it should not be confused with the California pompano which is actually a member of the butterfish family and not a pompano at all. It is a fast growing fish, reaching 8-12 inches in its first year and has a life expectancy of 3 to 4 years. Because of its fast growth and great taste, farming the pompano is becoming very popular. The average harvest size for farmed pompano is 1 to 1.5 pounds. It has a silvery body, metallic blue above and golden-yellow below with a deeply forked tail and wid caught average 1 ½ to 3 pounds. The pompano has been known to reach 9 pounds and 26 inches in length. It is a fairly expensive fish because of high demand and commercial fishing restrictions. The pompano has a flesh that is very flakey, very firm, and fairly high in fat and has a delicious rich flavor. It remains moist with a pearly white color after cooking. The best way to cook pompano is to bake, broil, sauté, pan fry or oven fry.


A small fish known as the saltwater pan fish, the porgy or scup which it is commonly called is very popular with sport and commercial fishermen along the Atlantic coast from Maine to South Carolina. The name “porgy” comes from an American Indian word for “fertilizer”, a common use for the fish because of its abundance in early America. It has a silver blue back with dull silver sides and 12 to 15 faint vertical stripes. The porgy averages 1 to 2 pounds and 12 to 14 inches in length but can grow to 3 or 4 pounds. They can live up to 20 years. Some of the regional names it can be found under are, scup, maidens, fair maidens, convict, paugy, prison fish, sargo and sea bream. The porgies tender, flakey meat is mild in flavor and moderate in fat content. They have many bones and are difficult to fillet, therefore they are commonly sold whole. The best way to cook porgy is to bake, deep fry, pan fry, sauté or steam.

Source by Tom J Bergerson

The Buying and Selling Costs of Real Estate Transactions in Kenya

As would be expected, there are several transactions involved in buying and selling property, which attract fees and taxes. In Kenya, you incur charges from the moment you begin searching for feasible investment ventures.

While some costs are set, such as registration and requisite search fees, many costs associated with buying and selling real estate in Kenya are highly variable and based on:

  • The type of real estate
  • Location of the property
  • Commissions and fees charged and earned by the various professionals (which are also often based on type and location of the property)
  • The type of transactions
  • Documents you want or need

The estimated sum for round trip transactions can range from 4.5% to 6.8% of the selling/buying price of the real estate.

Real-estate Agent Fees

  • Searching fees: rates vary depending on the type, size and cost of property with an urban apartment in upmarket neighborhood costing as much as Ksh5,000
  • Viewing fees: varies among real estate agents but usually ranges between Ksh500- 1000 for residential houses and over Kshs5,000 for commercial properties
  • Listing Fees: varies depending on size and location of property with landlords paying from 2% the value of the property
  • Agent’s commission (buyer & seller): 1.25% of the sale price

Property Requisite Search Fees

  • Preliminary requisite search fee: Ksh500
  • Costs of obtaining requisite completion documents (seller): Kshs500

Registration Costs

  • Registration fees: Ksh500
  • Banker’s cheque fee: Kshs600
  • Land rent clearance certificate: Kshs 7,500

Stamp Duties

Stamp duties are taxes tied to documents and real-estate sale/purchase transactions. It’s usually based on the sale price of the property.

  • Duly signed sales agreement: Ksh200 for original copy and Kshs20 for each copy
  • Property transfer (properties within municipalities): 4% flat rate
  • Property transfer (outside municipalities): 2% flat rate
  • Mortgage: 0.1% of the amount of mortgage
  • Property leased for less than 3 years: 1% flat rate
  • Property leased over a duration of 3yrs: 2% flat rate stamp duty


  • Income tax (non-residents): 30% of gross rental income
  • Income tax (foreign companies): 37.50% flat rate
  • Annual property tax: varies across locations and property value but is usually 1% of the property value
  • Land tax: varies by location of the land and is most costly in major towns such as Nairobi with rates as high as 8%

Legal and Mortgage Fees

  • Legal charges related with taking mortgage

    • Depends on amount of mortgage you take (higher mortgages mean higher fees) but mostly the rates are between 0.5-1.5% of the value of property
  • Property insurance: varies with duration of loan repayment and lender
  • Mortgage life policy: charged at 0.3% and 0.6% of the mortgage loan per year
  • Mortgage negotiation fees: although it varies, most lenders ask for 1% of the mortgage amount
  • Mortgage indemnity insurance: often ranges between 5 – 10% of the value of property
  • Legal fees related with lawyer overseeing sale process: 1.5%

Other Important Costs

  • Survey fees: Ksh 5, 000 consultation fee.

    • Survey fees are determined by the survey work done
  • Valuation charges: usually Kshs5,000 consultation fee

    • However, the actual valuation fee depends on property value. For instance valuation charges for urban properties valued Ksh10 million means Ksh40,000
  • Residency permit fees: accompanied by non-refundable processing fees and the fees vary depending with the type of permit you need. For instance:
  1. Class D- Kshs200,000 annually with 10,000 non-refundable fees
  2. Class I- Kshs5,000 with Kshs1,000 non-refundable fee
  3. Class A- Kshs250, 000 and 10,000 non- refundable, etc.

Company setup costs: depends on type and size of company and its location

Utility reconnection fees include

  • Electricity deposit fees: standard Ksh2,500
  • Water deposit fees: standard Ksh1,000

Source by James E Harrison

7 Essential Steps For Effective Employee Training

Hiring new employees can be stressful enough. Once they show up on that first day of work you may feel like your job is over – but it’s just beginning. Making sure you provide appropriate training, from the “get go,” can make the difference between a long-term, loyal and effective employee and an ineffective slacker! Following are “7 Essentials” of effective staff training, simple techniques that can be easily implemented for maximum results.

1) Focus on Individual Staff Needs

Not every new – or existing – employee has the same training needs. A new employee with extensive experience doing the same type of work that will be done in their new job will obviously need less formal training than a new employee who has never specifically done this type of work before.

Too often training is designed to be “one size fits all.” Generic training can either be too basic for a new staff member causing them to wonder “is this job going to be challenging enough?” or too advanced causing them to worry “will I be able to succeed in this position?

The first step in any training process is to evaluate the individual needs of the trainee – where are they at in terms of their knowledge, skills and abilities related to this job? Where do they need to be? Training should focus on filling that gap.

2) Create a “Desire to Learn”

The most effective training is delivered to trainees who are motivated and interested – who have a “desire to learn.” In most cases, new employees do come to you with that desire. They’re fresh. They’re motivated. They want to succeed in their new position. But what if you’re re-training an employee for a different position? One that he/she may not necessarily be interested in? Or what if you’re training an employee on technology that he/she is intimated by? These situations can create anxiety and hamper the effectiveness of training.

How can you create a desire to learn? Here are some tips:

  • Listen to the employee’s concerns. If you can understand – and address – the employees’ worries and insecurities about training, you can remove a significant barrier to learning.
  • Provide examples of specific, tangible ways that the training will help the employee.
  • Involve the employee in establishing training objectives, timeframes and methods (more on these later).
  • Focus on “development” not “remediation.” Nobody likes to feel that they’re inadequate or lacking in critical skills and knowledge needed to perform in their jobs. But many people can be motivated by the prospect of developing new skills and abilities. Do whatever you can to avoid making trainees feel “incompetent” or “stupid.”

3) Make Learning “Fun”

Learning doesn’t have to be tedious. Professional trainers speak of “creating a learning environment.” This means many things, including the need to remove trainees from their day to day responsibilities so they can focus on the training and making sure there is enough variety built into the training that trainees will remain engaged. For example, a straight lecture for six hours isn’t “fun” for anybody – including the trainer. But lecture, combined with exercises, small group discussion, hands-on application of things learned, etc., will help to break up the monotony and ensure more effective outcomes.

4) Develop an Evaluation Plan

Training should never be done simply for the sake of training. Make sure that you have some method in place to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Maybe this is a pre and post-test to determine whether specific concepts have been learned. Maybe it’s a post-evaluation done three to six months after the training to determine whether the training has “stuck.” Maybe it’s an evaluation of performance by supervisors and peers. In any event, make sure that you build in some means of measuring training effectiveness. And, if you find that the training has not been effective, take the time to reevaluate the methods and processes used and to make necessary adjustments.

5) Help Employees Apply Learning to the Job

Just learning concepts without understanding how those concepts apply to the “real job” is a waste of training time and money. Employees need to understand how what they’re learning applies to what they will be doing. One way of ensuring that this transfer will take place is to involve supervisors and coworkers in the training process. They should understand what is being done in training and should be “partners” in ensuring that the value of the training is supported and reinforced in the work setting. When supervisors “scoff” at the training or consider it a waste of time, never reinforcing to employees how what they learned applies to their jobs, it sends a signal that the training was useless – and undermines your investment (in time and dollars) in that employee.

6) Choose the “Right” Training Method

People have different learning styles and preferences. Some people read the instructions first, others refer to the instructions only after they’ve tried to “figure it out” on their own. Some prefer theory; others hands-on application. To the extent that you can (obviously it can get expensive to design individual programs for every employee…) make an effort to match training methods to learning preferences of employees.

7) Follow up and Evaluation

How many employees (and business owners!) have 3-ring binders from training sessions that they’ve never looked at after the training ended? Training is an ongoing process, not a discrete event that occurs once and is then forgotten. Make sure that you’re building in methods of following up on what was learned, evaluating the effectiveness of that learning, modifying future training, etc.

And, don’t assume that once you’ve “trained” an employee your job is done. You should be continually assessing your employees’ knowledge, skills and abilities and providing training, as necessary, throughout their employment.

Source by Linda Pophal

Deceptive Advertising – An Essay

The role of advertising in our free market society is to help develop products that satisfy consumer demands and to spur effective price competition. Advertising informs consumers about the availability of products, their features, and price information. Such information is vital to our competitive process. Advertisers employ unfair business practices in order to gain an unfair advantage above their competitors and to deceive consumers. The following essay examines the common types of deceptive acts and practices involved and the federal government agency that regulates advertisers. Government regulation provides a delicate balance between free business enterprise and consumer protection.

Businesses rely on advertising as a vital communication tool to reach potential consumers. Important information about the company and product features is conveyed to consumers in an attempt to offer them products that satisfy their wants and needs. In addition to print, radio, and television, laws governing advertising also cover signs, billboards, pamphlets, pictures or emblems, and direct and oral advertisements to consumers. To a certain degree advertising is protected by our courts under “commercial freedom of speech” guidelines. However, the information conveyed to consumers must be perceived as “truthful” in order to be protected against arbitrary government intrusion.

Consumers are protected from advertisers that intentionally or inadvertently mislead in promoting their products. Two main areas that consumers are protected from are false advertising and unfair acts or practices. False advertising is when an advertisement is misleading through a made or suggested statement, word, device, sound, or omission of material facts with respect to consequences which may result from the use of the product. This definition pertains to food, drugs, devices, and cosmetics. In addition, an advertisement can be viewed as being a false or misleading representation because of an implied representation.

Generally speaking an act or practice is considered to be unfair when it causes injury to consumers, injury to public policy or when it is based on immoral, unethical, or unscrupulous nature of the practice. A good example of how advertising leads to injury to consumers was when regulators decided that it was unfair for cigarette manufacturers to omit the health risks of cigarette smoking. This led to legislation requiring health warnings in cigarette advertising.

The Federal Trade Commission is the federal government body that regulates, monitors, and challenges advertising claims believed to be illegally deceptive. The FTC uses the following criteria when determining to challenge an advertising representation:

1) The ad makes a representation, has an omission, or uses a practice that is likely to mislead the consumer. The representation may be explicit (literal claim) or implied (indirect or by inference) in the advertisement.

2) The representation, omission, or practice is misleading when examined from the perspective of a reasonable consumer.

3) The representation, omission, or practice is material. The FTC evaluates the extent to which the questionable ad influences behavior or purchasing patterns. A representation, omission, or practice is material when behaviors or purchasing patterns are affected.

The FTC has the authority to punish offending companies that compromise deceptive advertising regulations. There are various types of remedies and sanctions available to the FTC to enforce the law. Such remedies and sanctions include:

Injunction – a court order that prohibits or compels future conduct.

Cease and desist orders – prohibits the firm from engaging in the act or practice that was determined to be deceptive.

Affirmative disclosure orders – the company is prohibited from making the claim in the future without making an additional disclosure.

Corrective advertising – compels the advertiser to state in all future advertising that the specific claims made in the past were false.

Multiple product order – applies to all future advertising of all products sold by the firm.

Consent order – company agrees to cease certain activities without admitting wrong doing.

The basic goal of the FTC is to increase the accuracy of product information available to consumers. They do this by imposing regulations on very specific advertising practices such as; mock demonstrations, endorsements or testimonials, promotions based on price, advertisements concerning the availability of credit, and product labeling.

In order to avoid FTC scrutiny advertisers must have the ability to substantiate their claims about a product’s attributes or performance through “reasonable basis.” An advertiser that claims their product “kills germs that cause colds and flu,” or “stimulates 25 pounds of weight loss in one week” must gather sufficient evidence of the claims validity, usually before the ad is printed or broadcast. If a complaint is made to the FTC concerning the accuracy of an advertisements claim, the FTC will assess the reasonableness of the advertisers substantiation in order to determine if it serves the public interest. The reasonable basis doctrine applies to food, drugs, devices and cosmetics because their effect to the public is direct and their use might endanger life.

The tremendous amount of money spent on advertising is a testament to the importance of advertising in our economic system. In a sense advertising fuels the economy. Unfortunately, the integrity of the advertising community must be monitored. Deceptive advertising legislation is continually being updated and improved to reflect the changing product lines that appeal to a public with specific growing needs and wants. Government regulation provides the balance between the important issues of commercial free speech, free business enterprise, and consumer protection.

Source by Frank Cardello

Recommendations for Air Asia With the Perspective of Different Cost Analysis

1 Introduction:

Starting from short haul operation strategy, Air Asia airline in south-east Asia provides cost effective flying solutions for travelers. To formulate this cost effecting strategy, Air Asia first determine different cost such as capital, fixed, variable, maintenance, labor, fuel, facility, inventory, environment and technology cost to establish new point to point airline service. To investigate different kinds of cost Air Asia first identify potential market in south-east Asia by strong commitment at all level of services; for instance in safety, security, customer service and benefits. Air Asia also established their strategy by building strategic alliances with other airlines. This low cost strategy from Air Asia airline also proven to be formidable puzzle of interest as different proportion of constant changing variables affect on policy making, segmenting market, inventory control, yield system and so on. Basically, implementing such strategy was indeed complex in nature for example, providing direct services between two destinations route increase LOS (level of service) but on the contrary if the airline does not fill up with sufficient passenger then the airline surely will incur huge losses..

2 Different Cost Analysis of Air Asia:

2.1 Capital cost:

For Air Asia, capital cost is associated with initial setup of project, generally which occur at the beginning of project likewise, investment or buying airplane, cargo, aircraft, lands, buildings, construction, alternative route, high speed train (HST) facilities for different route and so on. Recently, Air Asia is going to expand its market in air cargo which again asking for lots of capital investment. Though, airline capital investments is highly intensive and most of the potential project failed due to limited funds. For example, MAXjet airways, EOS and SilverJet all failed at the initial stage of capital investment only because lack of funding and competitive business models (Wensveen, Leick, 2009). Thus, Air Asia is required to understand this issue for successful business require sufficient amount of capital investment at initial phase.

2.2 Fixed cost:

Here, the price of Air Asia has to be determined on capacity, seats and utilities to minimize total cost. In addition, fixed cost also consist of ticketing operation, ground facilities, airport counter facilities, forward booking and dispatching aircraft from the fleet which can be spread over more passenger as traffic density rises.

2.3 Variable cost:

These costs are determined based on operating, maintenance, labor, fuel, facility, inventory, environmental and technology cost.

3 Operating cost:

The effects of operating cost are un-quantified as the scope of system is varied on point to point service. Here the basic operating costs are administration, ticketing, sales & promotion, passenger service, en-route airport maintenance and landing cost. These operating costs have determined on the level of various operations on airline including air service such as cargo operation, employees.

3.1 Flight operating cost: Is typically associated with aircraft, fleet, flying operation as well as cost related to repairing of equipment and depreciation & amortization.

3.2 Ground operating costs: this cost incurred from handling airport station, landing fees, charges, processing cargo, passenger baggage, travel agency cost, retail ticket office, distribution, commission, reservation, ticket and sales and so on.

3.3 System operating cost: this cost include passenger service cost (i.e. foods, entertainment, flight attendant and in flight service and transport related cost (i.e. regional airline partners providing regional air service, extra baggage expense and miscellaneous overheads.

4 Maintenance Cost:

The next stage is maintenance cost which is related to engine maintenance and components maintenance cost. In 2009, the proportion of engine maintenance cost was 43 percent where component maintenance cost was 20 percent and line maintenance was 17 percent. The maintenance cost also increases due to direct operating cost as for daily air flight operation. Thus, maintenance cost is crucial for our Air Asia because this overhead cost doesn’t depend although it varies to the number of times due to requirement of service, demand or other factors. For example, any break down on engine or component hamper airline services for on time flight or even any disruptions increase additional charges as well as minimizing level of services which eventually drive away passenger.

5 Labor cost:

For Air Asia, labor cost is major factor as it is related with salary, benefits, pay rate for cabin crew, pilot, stuffs and other employees. However, labor cost also includes with aircraft services, cleaning, and passenger handling and catering. For example, providing service for customers likes catering, cleaning or even emergency service during flight require services from stuffs. For these additional services, employers expect to receive additional incentives.

6 Fuel cost:

Constant fluctuations on fuel price are also causes great impact on airline service in terms of competition on point to point service. This has been evident that approximately overall 20 percent operating costs are incurred from fuel, and due to price sensitivity, flexibility and quick responsiveness fuel price causes negative effect on ticket price.

7 Facility cost:

Here all kinds of aircraft, electricity, water, availability of spare equipments, machine, tools, ground maintenance filtering, pipeline and route maintenance costs are related to facility cost.

8 Environmental cost:

Airline industry is usually always remaining under pressure to decrease negative impact on global warming and noise pollution. Growing awareness on environmental issues is becoming a huge challenge now days to introduce new technology, aircraft and new air flight. For example, Singapore airlines attempted to keep its fleet as modern as possible. The new A380 is a cleaner and greener aircraft compared to the Boeing 747 on a per-seat basis but introducing such new service was really costly.

The only solution is to become greener and eco-friendly is adapting technology which doesn’t pollute air and doesn’t increase global warming. For example, eco-friendly gas could be an alternative solution to mitigate this issue as well as reducing costs. In Air Asia, it’s very important to forecast future environmental threats to sustain in market. This cost is hard to eliminate but since Air Asia is based on south-east Asia; rules and regulation are considerably favorable to sustain in market. On the other hand, it’s necessary to forecast estimating cost of environmental tax.

9 Technological costs:

Poor technology like traditional system i.e. manual ticketing, checking system, decrease significant amount of level of service. Though the cost are differentiate but to reduce substantial amount of cost for example, online booking, online assistance, and online information could be minimized by 24/7 online help line. For safety and security, RFID technology or 2D reader, barcode, e-service can be used.

10 Conclusions:

To sum up, cost is always a major factor in all aspects like in marketing, operational, safety, technological, maintenance, environmental for Air Asia. Though cost is flexible in nature and complex but for Air Asia could easily switch their cost due differentiate their market and taking advantage on existing alliance. Here, Air Asia airline need to identify proportion of cost to invest at the right sector over the long period of time. As, the company is already offering 20 percent low flight than competitors; thus, it’s necessary to control cost with proper budgeting, planning and scheduling. In this case, Air Asia can also learn from Jet Asia and Singapore airlines, how these successful companies operate their cost-effective business to sustain in the market.

Source by Mohammad Yousuf Chowdhury

Top Three Advantages of Glass Office Partitions

Glass partitions are noticeable in offices, homes, warehouses and retail outlets all over the world, and with the increased amount of choices in style, they are becoming even more popular for yet more applications. Today the range of glass commercial partitions includes part plasterboard and part glass walls, framed partitions of glass and frame-less partitions of glass. Glass office partitions are not only modern and stylish in appearance; they offer many advantages for the contemporary office. Glass office partitions effectively create a light and spacious working environment. The benefits afforded by glass office partitions make them a great way of adding an air of elegance as well as a professional appearance to any office. Regardless of the specific requirements of each office, there will always be a suitable choice in glass partitions to meet the needs of the business.

Here are three of the major benefits of introducing glass office partitions to a workplace:

Natural light: Commercial partitions of glass do a terrific job of maximising the impact and dispersion of natural light, particularly when formed from clear plate glass that creates a powerful effect of open space. Adding glass partitions to a working environment provides an enhanced progressive mood in the space, at the same time as it saves money by increasing the use of natural light, thus boosting the impression given to clients and cutting down on energy expenditure.

Cost-efficiency: Glass partitions won’t only save on energy costs, they can also make the future expansion and rearrangement of an office a breeze. Glass partitions are an easily and quickly installed feature that are effective at dividing space while requiring zero or minimal structural modifications to the room which could save serious dollars.

Privacy: Glass office partitions can very successfully be used to create a private space within a busy office environment when they are formed from frosted, tinted or coloured styles of glass. They will also assist in the lowering of noise levels, in fact double glazed glass partitions are some of the most effective at preventing noise pollution.

As is clearly evident, glass partitions provide numerous advantages to an office space, such as providing natural soundproofing, as well as a greater dispersion of natural light, but when it comes to deciding what is most practical and suitable in office partitions for any particular office, it is always worth seeking the advice of an expert office designer who can recommend a range of partition options according to your needs and budget.

Source by John K. Taylor

Different Functions Of Buffalo Food Mixers

Food is one of the most necessities in human life, and people like to make food as delicious and nutritious as possible so that it will be an enjoyable part of life. Food is often eaten with others and eating is considered to be a social activity, so it is best to make sure that food is always of good quality and made well. This is why it is important for all of us to have the best kind of cooking equipment so that we can make the most of our food. One of the best pieces of equipment is buffalo food mixers.

You might be wondering what makes a Buffalo food mixer different from other food mixers. You can tell that this kind of food mixer is different just from its name. This food mixer is made to be very strong and durable so that it can mix some of the toughest meats and ingredients today. If you need a heavy duty mixer, then this definitely is the tool for you.

A buffalo mixer basically does what most food mixers do. It has a bowl fixture which holds the food in place, while a blade or whisk rotates and chops or mixes the food into the size that you want it to be. It also comes with a lid to prevent food from spilling out or anything falling into the container which has a humped back, similar to that of a buffalo.

At the beginning, buffalo choppers were meant only to chop up meats, but now there are different kinds made for different uses. You can find buffalo choppers that are made for industrial uses which are used to chop up large pieces of meat in order to have them cut into smaller and more workable sizes so that they can be used and sold easier.

There are also smaller mixers which are made for restaurants which need to process meat and mix ingredients as well as for home usage as well. These smaller mixers can be used for not only meat but vegetables, grains, and other ingredients as well.

Since a buffalo mixer can work with different kinds of ingredients, there are different blades and attachments that you can attach to the mixer so that it can work better. There are single and double blades which can be used for your mixer. There are also different whisks, dough hooks, and beaters that you can attach to mix foods.

You might be wondering where you can find a buffalo chopper or mixer for your home or business. Well, thankfully, these food mixers are available in many different places. Usually, your local home appliance store should have these mixers available, since they are such a popular tool. There are different kinds available, so you should choose the best one for you.

If you want to have a better price on buffalo food mixers, then you should check out used mixers on auctions and websites. This way, you will be able to have a great piece of equipment for a lower price than usual.

Source by David William Strickland