Goals Of Corporate Financial Management-Some Thoughts

There is a multiplicity of goals of management. Wealth maximization is a wholesome goal. Maximization of profit, profitability, liquidity and solvency are other goals. But these are sectional and fragmented. Similarly, minimization of cost of capital, risk and dilution of control address particular aspects. Well, all these put together throw much light on the whole gamut of management as such. Now, maximization of economic value is added to the list of goals of management.

Further more, the goal of the management should be to achieve the objective of the corporate owners, who are the suppliers of capital, namely shareholders. The finance manager’s function is not to fulfill his own objectives, which may include higher salaries, earning reputation or maintaining and advancing his personal power and prestige. It is, rather, to the extent manager is successful in this Endeavour, and he will also achieve his personal objectives. It is generally agreed that the financial objective of the firm should be the maximization of owner’s wealth.

However, there is disagreement as to how the economic welfare of owners can be maximized. Two well known and widely discussed criteria which are put forth for this purpose are: (a) profit maximizations, and (b) wealth maximization.

PROFIT MAXIMISATION

Traditionally, the business has been considered as an economic institution and profit has come to be accepted as a rationally valid criterion of measuring efficiency. In support of this contention, the following arguments are usually put forward:

(i) Profit is a prime motive or main incentive which paves the way for better and more efficient performance. It is a reward for entrepreneurial ability. Persons or groups of persons compete with one another and work hard in order to excel others in giving better and more efficient performance simply because they are attracted towards earning more and more profit. This promotes enterprising spirit and leads to economic development of the society.

(ii) Profit is not only an objective, but also a criterion or measuring-rod of efficient management. In this way it is both a goal as well as a measure of good performance. The degree of success or failure over a period can be tested on the basis of the degree of profitability in a company.

(iii) All business decisions are taken keeping in view their probable impact on profit. Thus, it has become a part of the decision-making process.

(iv) In a society or in a business enterprise efficient allocation of scarce resources and their judicious utilization are possible on the basis of profit criterion. Resources flow from low profitable ventures to high profitable ventures.

(v) In a society which is devoid of profit motive or incentive, there will be no place left for mutual   competition   to excel one another in efficiency,   skill   and competence. In such a situation the pace of growth and progress is bound to slow down.

Limitations: As a goal, however, profit maximization suffers from certain basic weaknesses: (1) It is vague, (2) it is a short-run point of view, (3) it ignores risk, and (4) it ignores the timing of returns. An unambiguous meaning of the profit maximization objective is neither available nor possible. It is rather very difficult to know about the following: Does it mean short-term profits or long-term profits? Does it refer to profit before or after tax? Does it refer to total profits or profit per share? Besides it is being ambiguous, the profit maximization objective takes a short-run point of view. Prof. Ducker and Prof. Galbraith contradict the theory of profit maximization and observe that exclusive attention on profit maximization misdirects managers to the point where they may endanger the survival of the business. Prof. Galbraith gives the following points to argue his line of reasoning: (1) it undermines the future for today’s profit; (2) it short-changes research promotion and other investments; (3) it may shy away from ‘any capital expenditure that may increase the invested capital base against which profits are based, and the result is dangerous obsolescence of equipment. In other words, the managers are directed into the worst practices of management. Risk and timing factors are also ignored by this objective. The streams of benefits may possess different degrees of certainty and uncertainty. Two firms may have same total expected earnings, but if the earnings of one firm fluctuate considerably as compared to the other, it will be more risky. Also, it does not make a difference between returns received in different time periods, i.e., it gives no consideration to the time value of money and value benefits received today and benefits after six months or one year.

For the reasons given above the profit maximization objective cannot be taken as the objective of management. It can be stated that the appropriate operational-decision criterion should include: (i) It must be precise   and   exact,   (ii)   It   should   consider both   quality   and   quantity dimension, (iii) It should be based on the bigger and the better principle, and (iv) It should recognize the time value of money. For these reasons, wealth (value) maximization has replaced profit maximization as an operational criterion for management decisions.

Consider the example of three business units making profits over three years given below

Year

Unit – 1

Unit – 2

Unit – 3

Rs.

Rs.

Rs.

1

2,00,000

4,00,000

50,000

2

2,00,000

1,50,000

1,50,000

3

2,00,000

50,000

4,00,000

Total

6,00,000

6,00,000

6,00,000

From the above table, it is clear that all the business units making profits of six lakh rupees.  But evidently unit – 2 is the best of three, followed by unit – 1 and unit – 3. Hence profit maximization is not accepted as a flawless goal, since it might lead to unfair means adopted and time value of money is not considered.

WEALTH MAXIMISATION

The maximization of wealth is a more viable objective of management. The same objective, if expressed in other terms, would convey the idea of net present worth maximization. Any action which creates wealth or which has a net present worth is a desirable one and should be undertaken. Wealth of the firm is reflected in the maximization of the present value of the firm i.e., the present worth of the firm. This value may be readily measured if the company has shares that are held by the public, because the market price of the share is indicative of the value of the company. And to a shareholder, the term ‘wealth’ is reflected in the amount of his current dividends   and the market price of share.

Ezra Solomon has defined wealth maximization objective in the following manner: “The gross present worth of a course of action is equal to the capitalized value of the flow of future expected benefits, discounted (or capitalized) at a rate which reflects the certainty or uncertainty. Wealth or net present worth is the difference between gross present worth and   the amount of capital investment required to achieve the benefits.”

What about a public sector firm the equity stock of which, being fully owned by the government, is not traded on stock market? In such a case, the goal of management should be to maximize the present value of the stream of equity returns. Of course in determining the present value of stream of equity returns, an appropriate discount rate has to be applied. A similar observation may be made with respect to other companies whose equity shares are either not traded or very thinly traded.

From the above clarification, one thing is certain that the wealth maximization is a long-term strategy that emphasizes raising the present value of the owner’s investment in a company   and the   implementation of projects that will increase the market value of the firm’s securities. This criterion, if applied, meets the objections raised against the earlier criterion of profit maximization. The manager also deals with the problem of uncertainty by taking into account the trade-off between the various returns and associated levels of risks. It also takes into account the payment of dividends to shareholders. All these ingredients of the wealth maximization objective are the result of the investment, financing and dividend decisions of the firm.

OTHER GOALS  OF MANAGEMENT

The matter is further complicated by the fact that management may in practice have other objectives either instead of, or as well as, that of profit maximization. A few   possibilities are given below.

(a)Growth: The maximization of profit does not necessarily require a firm of large size. Corporate power, however, is often a function of size and this may become a management objective. Non-profit making organisations, such as mutual assurance companies and building societies, where the profit motive cannot operate, often adopt pure growth as an objective.

(b)Risk reduction: Many potentially very profitable enterprises also carry a high risk of expensive failure. Prospecting for oil, for example, is very profitable if a rich strike is made but ruinous if the exploration proves abortive. It may, therefore, be a management objective to ensure survival by the avoidance of risk, profit becoming a secondary objective.

(c)Personal aspirations: People who obtain senior positions in
management are likely to be highly motivated towards their own career
objectives. Important objectives for a manager may therefore be the
improvement of his own salary, career prospects or security. This may mean a desire for quick results which will stand to the immediate credit of the manager involved as against more solid but longer term profit making objectives.

(d)Social objective: Some organisations adopt an altruistic social purpose as a management, objective. Thus they may be concerned to improve working conditions for their employees, to provide a wholesome product for their customers or to avoid anti-social actions such as environmental pollution or undesirable promotional practices.

(e)Efficiency: Some enterprises, such as charities or public services, have as a fundamental objective the provisions of a required service which is not supplied in the marketplace. A suitable management objective for them is the provision of the service at minimum cost.

(f) Orderly liquidation: A firm will sometimes reach a point where it is appropriate for it to go into liquidation. This may be forced on it by a crisis or a failure of its commercial viability or it may be undertaken voluntarily because the purposes of its original foundation have ceased to exist. In either case, once the decision has been taken, the objective of management will be to operate the business until its demise so as to balance the conflicts of interests of employees, shareholders and customers, to fulfil contractual obligations, e.g. to pay creditors and debenture holders, and to bring a tidy conclusion to all outstanding matters.

Where a particular management action has implications for more than one objective, a view must be taken as to the balance to be struck. For example, the objective of the maximization of profit may be in conflict with the objective of minimizing risk. The judgment to be made is subjective and, therefore, not susceptible to analysis although it is usually made by   reference to some explicit or implicit overall corporate objective.



Source by DR.R.SRINIVASAN

Benefits of Taking Finance Courses

It seems as though money is the only thing that makes the world live and moving, it’s true to a great extent but not completely.  To be able to enjoy money and the things that money can buy, one needs to understand finance and how money works.  Money works hard for the rich, whereas the poor work for small money.  This explains financial illiteracy among the masses and why a majority of the population is struggling to earn money.

Certificate Course in finance:  Today people are crazy to take financial education in order to achieve their life and career goals.  By undergoing one of the finance courses you can better manage your money and finance, through understanding and  better managing skills. 

Benefits of taking up a certificate course in Finance;

  • One of the  major benefits after taking a course in finance is great job prospects  that pays you well.  Though your paycheck is not everything, finance professionals command lot of respect in workplaces like a commercial banks and business establishments.  Moreover you will be better equipped to manage your personal finances.  You will understand your country’s economy and fine tune your finance accordingly.  The relation between your income and economy is what actually matters and why a majority of the population complaints of insufficient income. 
  • Allocation and budgeting is a major subject taught in detail in finance courses.  It’s a very useful subject as finance professionals who are experts in these fields to reach the top positions in a very short time.  Budgeting can be made much simpler if you know how to allocate them equally and intelligently.
  • Finance is not limited to companies, banks and commercial establishments in the world.  They are equally important in your personal life and at your home too.  The knowledge acquired out of a course in finance is universally applicable.  You will find its use in every sphere of life be it shopping, planning your budget or a career in finance.  Hence, if you are an expert in finance you can enjoy financial freedom sooner than the one who is not.
  • A major advantage of taking up a finance course is that you will have clear understanding about investments.  How hard is your money working? That’s the million dollar question.  A course in financial management will get you answers to it.  The answer will make you worth millions of dollars.  You know, saving money is just not going to make you rich.  Money has to work hard like you do and grow.
  • A certificate course in finance teaches you precisely how to handle finances in a situation of emergency.  Such situations arise in everyone’s life, but very few are able to manage the sudden scarcity.  Financial management will orient you in the skills of having the reserve cash to meet contingent expense.  Hence, for finance professional meeting a contingent expense situation is a breeze.
  • A finance course in financial management not only teaches you everything about the world of finance, but even trains in all aspects of management.  You will be completely control of finances and other  management parts.  You will also receive training about the legal environment of businesses and company law. 

If you wish to attain financial freedom and control on money and budgeting, a certificate course in finance is the gate-way  to realize your dreams.  Finance Coursesare a great hit if they are taken from prestigious institutions such as WLCI.



Source by Nitin Upadhyay

A Career In Investment Banking

Besides being lucrative, Investment Banking is one of the most competitive areas for aspiring candidates to enter the banking industry. Mostly, investment banks seek to recruit candidates who come from top universities and business schools. In order to start a career in investment banking, you need to have excellent analytical abilities, communication skills and aptitude for numbers.

Career Options

Investment banking is one of best options for candidates who possess drive, confidence and stamina. It is not meant for the feint of heart, as investment banking requires very a strong personality. Stamina and drive are both important, as financial services industry employee work long hours, particularly when they have to deal with deadlines. Generally, the working hours of an employee in investment banking ranges between 60 to 70 hours. However, during busy times, working hours may extend through the weekend.

Investment banking is composed of different sectors within which you can choose a suitable career. Investment banks also have various divisions within different sectors. When applying to a bank, candidates should make up their mind about which area they would like to join. The choice of area depends on their abilities and interests. Some of the sectors in investment banking are as follows:

Corporate Finance: Corporate finance includes a range of areas such as debt and equity capital, appropriate capital structures and mergers and acquisitions. Advisory services include sector specialists, who are supported by several general service teams.

Sales And Trading: Sales and trading is considered to be one of the most popular areas of work in the field of investment banking. A number of employees are required to work within the sales and trading departments. The work calls for hard working people with the ability to think fast and make key decisions in just seconds. The basic role of a sales and trading employee is to inform clients about the opinion of the bank on certain assets and markets.

As sales and trading staff spend most of their working hours in talking to clients, it is important for employees to have strong communication skills. Additionally, employees working in the sales and trading department in investment bank need to have a complete understanding of the research produced by their company. They should also be able to present sophisticated arguments in a convincing manner to a very sophisticated client base.

Research: Employees working with the research department provide clients with up-to-date reports on certain areas of interest. Analysts in the research department specialize in a specific business sector or area, thereby developing reports that can be safely distributed to clients. Besides having effective analytical abilities, good analysts working with the research department in investment banking need to have effective communicative skills, ability to think clearly and present clear ideas with confidence to the clients.

If you have a great amount of drive, determination and stamina, a career in investment banking could prove to be very lucrative, exciting and rewarding.



Source by Tony Jacowski

Finance Help: the Importance of Financial Planning in a Recession Market


Every person in an economy is happy when the financial markets are bullish, with high rates of economic growth. Public spending levels are high, investment levels are soaring, and the expectations about returns from investment are sky-high. Financial planning is necessary in these periods are necessary in these periods, but not so much so as in periods of recession. When recessionary forces hold sway, market economics project bearish markets and low growth levels. During these times, finance planners and proper planning is of utmost importance in order to ensure that investments are not affected too badly, and a swift recovery remains possible.

Recessionary phases come as a harsh reality check for the investment market, where expectations remain invariably optimistic during bullish conditions. These phases of economic downturn are the times when personal financial planning proves to be extremely valuable. It is common that investors (who generally predict returns as high as 20 percent during good times) become extremely pessimistic in their expectations during recession, and may indeed, drastically cut down on their investment levels.

This is where finance planning comes in handy. Financial plans, when done in a proper fashion during recession, can help investors achieve their targets, even during a market downturn. Planning should be based on expectations that are neither too optimistic (as during bullish periods), nor too bleak (as is often the case during recession). Financial planning, especially during a deflationary market, comprises of the following strategies:

a) Revision Of Investment Targets: Common investors always have certain targets in mind as they frame their finance plans. These targets are also generally accompanied by well-defined time-frames within which to achieve them. However, the ability to invest is adversely affected during a recessionary phase. In such a scenario, the initial investment plans might need to be revised and/or toned down according to the situation.

Realistic expectations are of the utmost importance in planning during deflation. When an economy experiences a downturn, individual incomes are adversely affected, reducing their ability to invest. This, in turn, results in individual debts being paid off less quickly than what might have been imagined initially. Additional payments on individual mortgages and debts are difficult to come by, and the time-frame required to achieve one’s investment targets may need to be extended during recession.

b) Proper Estimation Of ‘Risk-Tolerance’ Levels: Based on how ready an investor is to take risks in order to gain higher returns, (s)he can be classified as ‘risk-lover’, ‘risk-neutral’ or ‘risk-averse’. Awareness regarding ‘risk-tolerance’ grew rapidly after 2000 (after the dot com bubble burst). During recession, individuals need to accurately asses their risk-tolerance levels, and then choose the investment plans that would suit his/her preferences.

c) Restructuring The Individual Portfolio: After a revision of investment plans, a restructuring of portfolios that are currently held is also important. Sector diversification is an effective strategy, since owning a mix of small-cap, mid-cap and large-cap stocks effectively lower one’s risk, while maintaining a high rate of return attached to a portfolio,

d) Revision Of Insurance And Estate Plans: Insurance plans are generally made in order to plug the gap between desired levels of lifetime expenditures and portfolio incomes. During recessionary periods, portfolio income might go down. Consequently, one needs to expand his/her insurance plans. A thorough revision of real estate plans is also necessary.

These components of financial planning, if carried out properly, can help investors a great deal during recession. Hence, finance plans are of great importance during these periods.



Source by Sam Williams