Marketing Issues In The Uk Public Sector


In the United Kingdom, public health services are managed by the National Health Service (NHS). Unlike other countries like the United States, health in the UK is provided under a national health care system. This scheme is funded by the government through taxes and is also operated by the government. This kind of system is founded on the belief that all citizens in the United Kingdom are entitled to medical services. This goes a long way in ensuring that all the necessary medical services are available to consumers at their point of need. The National health care system is also advantageous in that it can provide long term services to those in need of them. The NHS was established with the intention of providing health care for all who needed it at the point of delivery because in the past, health care was not available to all who needed it. Consequently, there was a need to make sure that health care services were more coordinated in the region. There are numerous organisational changes that the NHS has undergone. First of all, it created an internal markets idea where health authorities and doctors were given funding from the government and they could use this to purchase health care from different groups like acute hospitals. However, with time, this scheme was not very effective as there was too much bureaucracy. Consequently, there was a need to bring in reforms in order to reduce inefficiencies and the current system was born; the use of primary care trusts. (Department of Health, 2006)

The Health care system in the United Kingdom is operated by a national budget made by the government. This budget normally includes all the issues that will affect the effectiveness of service provision such as; capital outlays, operating expenses and medical training. Specific health care providers normally operate on set budgets made on a yearly basis.

Despite all these benefits, one must not underestimate all the disadvantages that come with provision of health services under such a scheme. First of all, the total available resources will always and have always been less than the demand for health care. Consequently, there is a need to prioritise issues and allocate finances for the neediest groups. Groups such as the elderly are maintained at a pre-set fee and must therefore be denied certain medical procedures such as kidney dialysis; this procedure is only allowed for those who are fifty five years and below. There are many patients in the UK who have still not reaped the full benefits of a national health care system. Another challenge facing the health care system in the UK is the fact that there is little room for technology within service provision. All these challenges will be examined in detail in the subsequent portions of the essay.

Overview of the health care system in the UK

There are a number of stakeholders that are involved in provision of health services within the United Kingdom. The first being the Department of Health; their main objective is to ensure the well being and health of its citizens. Additionally, there is the National Health Service whose objectives are not clearly laid out. There are also Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) that have been commissioned with the process of selecting a number of health services for their local population in order to ensure the well being and health of the population. PCTs have the option of choosing health care services from any of the following groups (Department of Health, 2005)

  • social services
  • voluntary services
  • private clinics
  • private hospitals
  • NHS

In light of these alternatives, there is a variety of health care providers to choose from and these health care service providers need to market themselves in order to ensure that they get commissioned by the NHS trust care. Some of the issues that need to be given top priority during marketing include availability of suitable equipment and employment of new technologies in provision, Possession of well trained staff among other issues. Because of all these differences in priority issues, there is competition among health care service providers.

It should be noted that the government currently has moved towards incorporation of marketing strategies in the process of health care provision. The government has indicated their commitment towards marketing strategies because it uses private providers in the process of reducing the amount of time people spend waiting for services provided by the NHS. The government has also included independent centres in the process of treatment and diagnosis. Additionally, patients have been given choices between the NHS and private care providers with regard to elective services. The Department if Health (2006) asserts that whenever commissioning if health services is done, there should be utmost consideration of contestability. The latter trait is also applicable to medical services provided outside the hospital scenario such as carer services.

The relationship between the National Health Service and its suppliers is not clearly defined. This is because the NHS has some inherent community values between the organisation and its partners, however, it also has to consider the fact that it has to be contestable and market driven. This presents some complexities in the supplier-organisation relationship. There is a need to make sure that both aspects are adhered to. Health care trusts; who serve as health care commissioners, usually establish a criterion that facilitates the structuring of the local market. They are also charged with the responsibility of choosing service providers that will deliver health services that fall within their strategic direction and those ones that will also demonstrate that the organisation have obtained a return on their investment. (Coast, 1996)

What people think about the service

It should be noted that not many patients/clients are satisfied with the level of service provision by the NHS and even other service providers. The organisation subjects most of its patients to long waiting periods. Besides that, there are limited resources hence the NHS has to prioritise which services are more vital. The overall effect of this is that some patients may miss out on vital health services. Other people think that the NHS has not given them adequate opportunities to choose different health car options. Consequently, most of them seem to lack the ability to get better health care even when they can afford to.

Problems and issues of the service

Market research is a vital part of any organisation that wishes to stay ahead of its competitors. There is a need to include the needs of the patient when trying to decide on which health service providers will be chosen for certain medical services. Private health care providers should be acceptable to patients. If the NHS simply chooses its own bidders without consulting the population, then there may be customer dissatisfaction.

Another major marketing issue affecting the health service system, in the UK is the issue of technology and innovation within service delivery; this falls under the ‘product’ portfolio of the 4 principles of marketing. Service innovation is one of the key marketing techniques that any organisation worth its salt needs to take advantage. Principles of marketing are founded on the belief that a product with more value will fetch greater demand from the market. Service providers who continuously embrace innovation will provide consumers with greater value for their investments and this will give them an edge over their competitors. The NHS has not fully embraced those options in its marketing strategy. Consequently, patients are not getting the best quality service from the organisation. Innovation could have been seen through provision of health care for patients in the privacy of their homes. The organisation also has the option of introducing outpatient follow ups. This will ensure that health care consumers receive ‘after sales service’. This could go a long way in reducing the long patient lists since potential health problems could be detected early enough and dealt with. The overall health of the population may improve and this will enhance consumer satisfaction. The organisation needs to embrace the fact that most of its consumers re not satisfied with their level of service provision because they have not been innovative. (Maynard, 1991)

In line with innovation, the NHS has not introduced numerous choices for the consumer. There is a lack of innovation during the process of designing product packages. Issues such as community service are not included in mainstream services offered by the NHS. The result of such an approach is that there is a sort of monopoly by the NHS trusts and general practitioners. The health organisation has not realised that consumers need to determine for themselves which services are more appropriate for them. By increasing choice for patients, there will be more responsiveness among health care providers and the NHS. This is an aspect that is lacking and needs to be embraced.

Innovation is not only applicable to the NHS; private health care providers need to embrace this too. In the past, they have not demonstrated their ability to incorporate new and creative ideas in health care provision. There is also a need to adopt technology in various aspects of their operations. Currently, most practitioners may be seen trying to outsource IT experts when dealing with medical records. This causes serious impediments to the delivery of services a it is too bureaucratic. Patients have complained about how most doctors they approach spend most of their time on the computer rather than on patients themselves.  This means that there is a need to train medical professionals on how to deal with new technologies. In line with this, there is also a problem with the coordination of Information Technology systems. Complaints have brought forward by patients about how different health providers affiliated to the NHS have no coordinated health care records. Therefore, a patient who had done an x-ray in one health clinic and seeks treatment from another health clinic will be asked to carry his or her results manually to the second clinic. This need not be the case; all private health care providers affiliated to the NHS should coordinate their information systems to maximise efficiency and also to prevent undue waiting periods for their consumers. (Dopson, 2003)

The third marketing problem that the NHS has is the issue of consumer education. Most consumers who may opt to go for elective services do not have the knowledge of where they can find these practitioners. The main marketing issue here is promotion. Compared to other public health services like education, there are minimal cases of promotion in the health services sector. Consumers need to know the various health options available to in order to make use of them. The main promotional tactic that has been utilised by the NHS is public relations. Many NHS trusts usually establish community services with their local populations and this is the major route that they have concentrated on. However, there is very little implementation of advertising campaigns by the NHS and other private health care providers. Additionally, there is the use of sales personnel to market health products. The latter strategy could be adopted by private health care providers who offer elective services. They have not promoted their services to various individual in order to let them know what they can offer. (Hyde, 2004)

External forces affecting the problems


The NHS and private service providers are faced with certain political issues. They need to make sure that decisions made are in line with current legislations. If this does not occur, then there may be challenges from the public.  For example, an NHS trust in Derbyshire was faced with court battles from a patient after the primary trust made the decision to procure United Health Europe Limited as their private service provider. The case started in the High Court and eventually reached the court of Appeal which ruled that the NHS should start another process of procurement as they had made the wrong choice when selecting the private care provider because they had not engaged in adequate consultation with the public. This indicates that the NHS was lacking in the area of market research.

The Health Care and Social Care Act of 2001 requires that NHS primary care providers need to engage in adequate consultations with the public whenever there is a need to introduce new services to the market or before market testing. The issue of market research was also highlighted in the case of Morris v Trafford NHS trust. The NHS needs tp make sure that there is full involvement of the local community in any of its decisions.

Another political issue that affects the above marketing issues is conflict of interest. There are instances when commissioners of health services happen to be health providers themselves. This could undermine efforts to choose the most appropriate health clinician or service provider if the person doing the choosing can be chosen too. (Chappel et al, 2001)

Economic factors

The major factor that the NHS has to consider when offering services to the public is its budgetary constraints. The NHS is run by the government and mainly depends on budgetary allocations granted by the government. Consequently, there is a need to make sure that all the marketing services will be conducted within the given budget. This is a major constraint during the process of decision making; most services, equipments, recruitments have to be laid aside just because there is alack of adequate funding. Subsequently, the best decisions need to be made in order to maximise the limited resources available for use by the National Health Service.

In addition to this, there is also the issue of competition among private health care service providers. The government gave private health service providers the mandate to offer treatment and diagnosis to patients. This means that they need to make use of various marketing tools in order to stay ahead of their competitors. Most of them still lack the ability to develop adequate marketing strategies to deal with this new development. There are various options that marketers can use to deal with competition.

Another economic factor that affects the NHS is the fact that they have so many factors that they need to include in the decision making process. NHS trusts have numerous partners and stakeholders that they deal with on a day to day basis. As a result, they cannot make marketing decisions to suite themselves alone and then leave out their partners’ view points. They have to adopt consultative approaches within their marketing processes. (Mullen, 2004)

Social factors

It is quite necessary for the NHS to tackle some of the needs that their local communities have. This means that there should be identify some of the needs that their clientele have before they can adopt models for the company. It should therefore be noted that the number of patients is increasing by the day and the NHS needs to find out some of the causative factors from the community itself and then come up with strategies to deal with it. The issue of community involvement has led to one of the major marketing problems facing the NHS; market research. They seem to lack the ability to involve the public in this crucial awareness strategy and have therefore been lagging behind.

Private service-providers need to come up with innovative packages for their clientele. However, this can only be achieved through staff training and development. They also need to ascertain that their staff members have the best possible working conditions and also that they are given good salary packages. This will reduce confrontations within private clinics or hospitals and will also enhance cohesion.

Cultural factors

The people in the United Kingdom have taken up unhealthy lifestyles that are incompatible with healthy populations. Most people are fond of eating junk foods or foods rich in cholesterol. This means that the UK population is particularly vulnerable to heart related complications. Additionally, a large majority of the population engage in smoking hence increasing the cases of respiratory illnesses. Therefore, the NHS needs to prioritise some of these issues. They need to asses the level of prevalence of the above mentioned diseases through market research and then they need to come up with special product packages to combat them. (Chappel et al, 2001)

Technological factors

There is a need for the NHS to embrace more technology in the area of service provision. The field of medicine has numerous applications that can utilise technology. This can be in record keeping, coordination of services by other NHS providers, use of up to date equipments in the treatment and diagnosis phase and also in the administrative process. Countries such a the US do not have a national health care system and they boast of having one of the most technologically advanced medical systems in the world. This brings to light the fact that a national health care system can slow down technological adaptations.  However, with consistent efforts by the various stakeholders in the NHS, then there will be continuous improvement in this area.

Private health providers also need to embrace technology through use of advanced equipments and training techniques for their staff members.

Environmental factors

The major environmental aspect affecting health care providers is in relation to the community. The organisation is expected to participate in community cleaning services in order to serve as an example to the locals. This will boost their public relations and will go along way in promoting their services. Additionally, health care providers need to make sure that they use biodegradable disposing bags for their health related wastes.

Marketing strategies that can solve the problems

The first thing that the NHS needs to do is to adopt a market research strategy. Market research is the process of;

  • collecting
  • recording
  • analysing data that exists in the market (Kress, 1988)

This data will normally involve both consumers and competitors. Most of the time, market research is done in order to find out information before introduction of certain products or in order to come with forecasts. Normally, organisations will need to come up with demographic factors about their clients. Market research should be mainly be adopted by private health care providers. Since the government has given private service providers the mandate to offer health services to consumers directly, there will be a need to come up with the most attractive package since the sector is no vulnerable to market forces.

Some of the tools that the private service providers or the NHS can use to conduct their market research can include the use of questionnaires. They could find out what patients normally look for in a good health care system. In order to reduce ambiguity or diverse answers, there could be a list of these items to choose from. Additionally, the questionnaires could also include information about where consumers mostly go to purchase their health care and what prices are charged. This will give private service providers information about their competitors and will help them to come up with better prices for their services. This will help them in the process of achieving competitive edge. The main advantage of using questionnaires is that they take up relatively minimal time compared to other sources. Secondly, questions are straight forward and uniform. This will help the service providers come up with solutions as fast as they possibly can.

Market research can also be conducted through secondary sources. Here, private service providers can use the internet or company websites in order to compile information about some of their competitors. By conducting marketing research, private service providers will ensure that their prices, products and location strategies suite their clients. The internet is quite a valuable source on some of the strengths and weaknesses of health service providers. In case company websites are not available, then private health care providers can make use of journal article or newspapers containing information about their field of interest. There are also other countries in Europe that have adopted similar health care system to the UK’s. As result it possible for the NHS to emulate some of their marketing strategies in order to improve the public’s health. (Rossi, 1983)

Market research will go a long way in ensuring that two of the marketing problems mentioned above have been solved. The first was the issue of patient involvement in decision making processes. Issues found from the research should act as a basis for some of the changes to be incorporated into the NHS and also among private care providers. The second issue that will be solved is the issue of innovation. Consumers can give their take on some of the services that they would like to see in the NHS or among private service providers. This will ensure that most of these issues highlighted could be lumped up into anew product package. Consumers have numerous and creative ideas that could boost the public health care system in the United Kingdom.

The second marketing strategy that private service providers could adopt is through brand positioning. There are two main avenues available;

  • intangible brand strategy
  • tangible brand strategy

Intangible strategies are those brands that are not linked to any particular product. Such brands are usually designed to capture audiences through their names rather than the rationale behind them. The second type of strategy is the tangible brand strategy. These are brands that are linked to specific functions. The most appropriate strategy for private health care providers is the latter. This is because some of the most powerful organisations in the world have adopted this strategy. For example, FedEx has established a tangible strategy that links its name to guaranteed delivery. Citizen Bank has established brand that is responsive and rapid. (Bohmer et al, 2001)

The first step is the process of creating a strong brand image is through a compilation of items that may be most attractive to customers these could include

-properly trained nurses

-convenient locations

-best trained doctors

-has treated people for 50 years

These and many more could act as a platform. The market research strategy mentioned above could also act as a guide and will need more editing and analysis in order to come up with the most popular attributes. Thereafter, the health care providers could compare their attributes with those ones offered by the competitors and deduce which ones will fetch the highest market power. The health care providers then need to come up with feasibility options for different brand options. For example, is they choose the issue of having well trained nurses as their brand strategy, then they must asses what it will entail financially to adopt that trait. This is because possessing well trained nurses is a good motivating factor for patients but may not be very affordable for a particular service provider. (Mitton & Donaldson, 2004)

The issue of brand strategy is quite useful to private service providers because they have now been given the mandate to provide elective services. If clinics, hospitals, etc do not adopt a brand strategy, then they take the risk of disappearing among the other health care providers. Brand strategies will solve the problem of consumer education because they will act as platform for promoting the respective health service provider.


The National Health Service and private health providers have not involved the public in their decision making processes, they have also been slow in promotional efforts. Lastly, the two groups have also done very little innovation in their service delivery. These three marketing challenges can be solved through adoption of brand strategies and through market research. (Fowler, 1993) In the current market place, organisations are becoming highly competitive; using these marketing strategies could put an end to patient dissatisfaction.


Department of Health (2006): About us: The Department of Health, retrieved from accessed on 30 April 2008

Mitton, C. & Donaldson, C. (2004): Priority Setting Toolkit: A guide to the use of economics in healthcare decision making; London, UK: BMJ Publishing, pp. 35–45

Bohmer, P. et al (2001): Maximising health gain within available resources in the New Zealand public health system; journal of Health Policy, 55:37–50

Chappel, D. et al (2001):  Implementation and evaluation of local-level priority setting for stroke; Public Health. 2001, 115: 21–9

Maynard, A. (1991): Developing the Health Care Market; The Economic Journal, 101:1277–86.

Mullen, P. (2004): Quantifying priorities in healthcare: transparency or illusion? Health Service Management Resource; 17:47–58

Coast, J. (1996): Priority Setting: The Health Care Debate. Chichester; UK: Wiley

Fowler, F. (1993): Survey Research Methods; Newbury Park; CA; Sage; pg102

Kress, G. (1988): Marketing research; Prentice-Hall; London; pg 98

Rossi, P. (1983): Handbook of Survey Research; New York; Academic Press; pg 103- 108

Department of Health (2005): NHS improvement plans: putting people at the heart of public services; a report by Department of Health

Dopson, S. (2003): Leading Healthcare Organizations; Pal grave Macmillan

Hyde, j. (2004): Managing and Supporting People in Healthcare; Bailliere Tindall, London International Journal of Healthcare Management

Source by Carolyn Smith

What Is Social Media Marketing?

If you fall into any one of the following categories, like:

  • the ones who don’t know much or anything about social media,
  • the ones who are interested but don’t know how to use it and
  • those who don’t believe in the value that a social media strategy can bring to any site or business

you must read this article to know how big a deal is social media and the enormous benefits of social media marketing.

Social media is information content created by people using highly accessible and scalable publishing technologies that is intended to facilitate communications, influence and interaction with peers and with public audiences. This is typically done via the Internet and mobile communications networks. Today this practice is being enjoyed by executives and professionals for brand exposure and marketing.

Do you make these mistakes to market your brand or services?

  • Use Yellow page ads that cost thousands of dollars, yet bring in little new business?
  • Spend money on direct mailers that also have limited results.
  • How about money spent on print advertising. How effective is it?
  • Are you spending lots of money optimizing your website but still have little traffic.
  • Spend money on Pay Per Click Advertising Campaigns, with limited results.

Can you improve your business if you know:

  • What is being said about you.
  • What your customers think about your product or service.
  • What your customers really want.
  • What your competitors are doing.
  • How to stay up to date with the latest trends and developments.
  • How to make your business more profitable.

Nothing provides a better return on investment than having a network of people raving about you and it doesn’t matter what product or service you sell. So let’s have a look onto the benefits of social media viral marketing.

The value of Marketing through Social Media Channels

Social media marketing is the process of promoting your site or business through social media channels and it is a powerful strategy that will get you links, attention and massive amounts of traffic.Social media marketing is an engagement with online communities to generate exposure, opportunity and sales. The number-one advantage is generating exposure for the business, followed by increasing traffic and building new business partnerships. It is a powerful strategy that will get you links, attention and massive amounts of traffic.

What are the benefits?

It’s natural. No doubt you get natural links, your website is exposed to a large number of people. This differs from paid advertising which has overt commercial overtones.

It’s defensible. Social communities can be a great source of web traffic on top of any traffic you are already receiving from search engines. While you can’t easily increase your search engine traffic, social media traffic can be very easily controlled through strategic marketing.

It’s low-cost/high returns. Costs are limited to only time and perhaps the expenses involved in hiring a freelance programmer/designer. The benefits will often exceed the cost. It would take you thousands of dollars to buy many links; social media has the ability to give you that for free.

It complements other efforts. Social media optimization and marketing is usually community-specific. It doesn’t interfere with any other methods of getting traffic to your website. It can and will fit perfectly with an advertising campaign targeting other websites or search engines.

There is no other low-cost promotional method out there that will easily give you large numbers of visitors, some of whom may come back to your website again and again. If you are selling products/services or just publishing content for ad revenue, social media marketing is a potent method that will make your site profitable over time.

Source by Socialfactory

Promotional Badges – Marketing Emblems of Your Company

Promotion strategies come in wide variety. There are television and radio advertisements, parties, events, and many more. But one of the things that a company must take into consideration when doing promotions is the cost at hand for the plan.

Events eat all the money in the budget as well as advertisements on TV or radio. Unlike other promotions, promotional items are what you need to do direct marketing to your consumers. One of the items you can make use of that are cost effective are promotional badges.

Badges, also called patches, are wearable stuff made from metal, plastic, leather, textile, rubber, or other materials. Badges are commonly added accessories attached to clothing, bags, footwear, vehicles, or to home appliances like the refrigerator.

Four General Categories of Promotional Badges

Badges generally have four categories:

  1. Enamel badges have colors made of glass-based or synthetic polymer enamel, which are filled at the base of the badge. Enamel badges are available in a wide range of metallic and translucent finish.
  2. Name badges are usually used in exhibits, events, or presentations because of the identity that the badge has. Name badges provide the best opportunity for your company or organization to be identified by the people. Well-designed, neat, and sensible promotional badges greatly help in establishing your company image. Corporate graphics or your company logo can also be engraved on the name badge.
  3. Flashing button badges are trendy button or pin badges made of LED, which allows it to flash in the dark. Flashing button badges come in multicolor finishes to give that stylish feature.
  4. Custom metal badges are perfect if you want to have your own way of having the badge as effective as possible when it comes to direct marketing.

Why Choose Promotional Badges

Badges are perfect for your direct marketing approach, since they are wearable, with funky style, convenient, and less expensive. The media industry, for example, benefits from promotional badges for its promotions in records and releases and concert tours. Civic and charity institutions also utilize badges for mass appeal through inscribing their slogans on the badges, since these badges have great mass appeal and have those attention-getting designs. You can also take advantage of events where you can use these badges as giveaways.

In addition, these badges can be personalized according to your campaign or slogan or the message that your company wants to convey. As promotional badges have still a long way to go before being out of fashion, your company badge, may it be large button badges or small ones, will be getting through your target market with your message.

Source by Douglas Gregory


International Marketing

Guided by :Dr.Jelsy joseph

Director,Dept of management studies&research




International marketing refers to MARKETING carried out by companies overseas or across national borderlines . Companies must consider language barriers, ideals, and customs in the market they are approaching.International marketing is simply the application of marketing principles to more than one country. At its simplest level, international marketing involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decisions across national boundaries. At its most complex level, it involves the firm in establishing manufacturing facilities overseas and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe.

Elements of the international marketing mix:

The “Four P’s” of marketing: product, price, placement, and promotion are all affected as a company moves through the five evolutionary phases to become a global company. Ultimately, at the global marketing level, a company trying to speak with one voice is faced with many challenges when creating a worldwide marketing plan. Unless a company holds the same position against its competition in all markets (market leader, low cost, etc.) it is impossible to launch identical marketing plans worldwide.


A global company is one that can create a single product and only have to tweak elements for different markets. For example, Coca-Cola uses two formulas (one with sugar, one with corn syrup) for all markets. The product packaging in every country incorporates the contour bottle design and the dynamic ribbon in some way, shape, or form. However, the bottle or can also includes the country’s native language and is the same size as other beverage bottles or cans in that country.


Price will always vary from market to market. Price is affected by many variables: cost of product development (produced locally or imported), cost of ingredients, cost of delivery (transportation, tariffs, etc.), and much more. Additionally, the product’s position in relation to the competition influences the ultimate profit margin. Whether this product is considered the high-end, expensive choice, the economical, low-cost choice, or something in-between helps determine the price point.


How the product is distributed is also a country-by-country decision influenced by how the competition is being offered to the target market. Using Coca-Cola as an example again, not all cultures use vending machines. In the United States, beverages are sold by the pallet via warehouse stores. In India, this is not an option. Placement decisions must also consider the product’s position in the market place. For example, a high-end product would not want to be distributed via a “dollar store” in the United States. Conversely, a product promoted as the low-cost option in France would find limited success in a pricey boutique.


After product research, development and creation, promotion (specifically advertising) is generally the largest line item in a global company’s marketing budget. At this stage of a company’s development, integrated marketing is the goal. The global corporation seeks to reduce costs, minimize redundancies in personnel and work, maximize speed of implementation, and to speak with one voice. If the goal of a global company is to send the same message world wide, then delivering that message in a relevant, engaging, and cost-effective way is the challenge. Effective global advertising techniques do exist. The key is testing advertising ideas using a marketing research system proven to provide results that can be compared across countries. The ability to identify which elements or moments of an ad are contributing to that success is how economies of scale are maximized. Market research measures such as flow of attention & flow of motion and branding moments provide insights into what is working in an ad in any country because the measures are based on visual, not verbal, elements of the ad.

Advantages of international marketing

  • Economies of scale in production and distribution
  • Lower marketing costs
  • Power and scope
  • Consistency in brand image
  • Ability to leverage good ideas quickly and efficiently
  • Uniformity of marketing practices
  • Helps to establish relationships outside of the “political arena”
  • Helps to encourage ancillary industries to be set up to cater for the needs of the global player

Disadvantages of international marketing

  • Differences in consumer needs,wants and usage patterns for products
  • Differences in consumer response to marketing mix elements
  • Differences in brand and product development and the competitve environment
  • Differences in the legal environment, some of which may conflict with those of the home market
  • Differences in the institutions available, some of which may call for the creation of entirely new ones (e.g. infrastructure)
  • Differences in administrative procedures
  • Differences in product placement.

                   Product Issues in International Marketing

Product Need Satisfaction.  We often take for granted the “obvious” need that products seem to fill in our own culture; however, functions served may be very different in others—for example, while cars have a large transportation role in the U.S., they are impractical to drive in Japan, and thus cars there serve more of a role of being a status symbol or providing for individual indulgence.  In the U.S., fast food and instant drinks such as Tang are intended for convenience; elsewhere, they may represent more of a treat.  Thus, it is important to examine through marketing research consumers’ true motives, desires, and expectations in buying a product.

The International Product Life Cycle (PLC).  Consumers in different countries differ in the speed with which they adopt new products, in part for economic reasons (fewer Malaysian than American consumers can afford to buy VCRs) and in part because of attitudes toward new products (pharmaceuticals upset the power afforded to traditional faith healers, for example).  Thus, it may be possible, when one market has been saturated, to continue growth in another market—e.g., while somewhere between one third and one half of American homes now contain a computer, the corresponding figures for even Europe and Japan are much lower and thus, many computer manufacturers see greater growth potential there.  Note that expensive capital equipment may also cycle between countries—e.g., airlines in economically developed countries will often buy the newest and most desired aircraft and sell off older ones to their counterparts in developing countries.  While in developed countries, “three part” canning machines that solder on the bottom with lead are unacceptable for health reasons, they have found a market in developing countries.

Branding.  While Americans seem to be comfortable with category specific brands, this is not the case for Asian consumers.  American firms observed that their products would be closely examined by Japanese consumers who could not find a major brand name on the packages, which was required as a sign of quality.  Note that Japanese keiretsus span and use their brand name across multiple industries—e.g., Mitsubishi, among other things, sells food, automobiles, electronics, and heavy construction equipment.


Promotional objectives.  Promotional objectives involve the question of what the firm hopes to achieve with a campaign—”increasing profits” is too vague an objective, since this has to be achieved through some intermediate outcome (such as increasing market share, which in turn is achieved by some change in consumers which cause them to buy more).  Some common objectives that firms may hold:

  • Awareness.  Many French consumers do not know that the Gap even exists, so they cannot decide to go shopping there.  This objective is often achieved through advertising, but could also be achieved through favorable point-of-purchase displays.  Note that since advertising and promotional stimuli are often afforded very little attention by consumers, potential buyers may have to be exposed to the promotional stimulus numerous times before it “registers.”
  • Trial.  Even when consumers know that a product exists and could possibly satisfy some of their desires, it may take a while before they get around to trying the product—especially when there are so many other products that compete for their attention and wallets.  Thus, the next step is often to try get consumer to try the product at least once, with the hope that they will make repeat purchases.  Coupons are often an effective way of achieving trial, but these are illegal in some countries and in some others, the infrastructure to readily accept coupons  (e.g., clearing houses) does not exist.  Continued advertising and point-of-purchase displays may be effective.  Although Coca Cola is widely known in China, a large part of the population has not yet tried the product.
  • Attitude toward the product.  A high percentage of people in the U.S. and Europe has tried Coca Cola, so a more reasonable objective is to get people to believe positive things about the product—e.g., that it has a superior taste and is better than generics or store brands.  This is often achieved through advertising.
  • Temporary sales increases.  For mature products and categories, attitudes may be fairly well established and not subject to cost-effective change.  Thus, it may be more useful to work on getting temporary increases in sales (which are likely to go away the incentives are removed).  In the U.S. and Japan, for example, fast food restaurants may run temporary price promotions to get people to eat out more or switch from competitors, but when these promotions end, sales are likely to move back down again (in developing countries, in contrast, trial may be a more appropriate objective in this category). 

Legal issues.  Countries differ in their regulations of advertising, and some products are banned from advertising on certain media (large supermarket chains are not allowed to advertise on TV in France, for example).  Other forms of promotion may also be banned or regulated.  In some European countries, for example, it is illegal to price discriminate between consumers, and thus coupons are banned and in some, it is illegal to offer products on sale outside a very narrow seasonal and percentage range.

Language issues.  Language is an important element of culture.  It should be realized that regional differences may be subtle.  For example, one word may mean one thing in one Latin American country, but something off-color in another.  It should also be kept in mind that much information is carried in non-verbal communication.  In some cultures, we nod to signify “yes” and shake our heads to signify “no;” in other cultures, the practice is reversed.  Within the context of language:

  • There are often large variations in regional dialects of a given language.  The differences between U.S., Australian, and British English are actually modest compared to differences between dialects of Spanish and German.
  • Idioms involve “figures of speech” that may not be used, literally translated, in other languages.  For example, baseball is a predominantly North and South American sport, so the notion of “in the ball park” makes sense here, but the term does not carry the same meaning in cultures where the sport is less popular.
  • Neologisms involve terms that have come into language relatively recently as technology or society involved.  With the proliferation of computer technology, for example, the idea of an “add-on” became widely known.  It may take longer for such terms to “diffuse” into other regions of the world.  In parts of the World where English is heavily studied in schools, the emphasis is often on grammar and traditional language rather than on current terminology, so neologisms have a wide potential not to be understood.
  • Slang exists within most languages.  Again, regional variations are common and not all people in a region where slang is used will necessarily understand this.  There are often significant generation gaps in the use of slang.

Writing patterns, or the socially accepted ways of writing, will differs significantly between cultures. 

Pricing Issues in International Marketing

Price can best be defined in ratio terms, giving the equation

resources given up
price  =     ———————————————               
goods received

This implies that there are several ways that the price can be changed:

  • “Sticker” price changes—the most obvious way to change the price is the price tag— you get the same thing, but for a different (usually larger) amount of money.
  • Change quantity. Often, consumers respond unfavorably to an increased sticker price, and changes in quantity are sometimes noticed less—e.g., in the 1970s, the wholesale cost of chocolate increased dramatically, and candy manufacturers responded by making smaller candy bars. Note that, for cash flow reasons, consumers in less affluent countries may need to buy smaller packages at any one time (e.g., forking out the money for a large tube of toothpaste is no big deal for most American families, but it introduces a greater strain on the budget of a family closer to the subsistence level).
  • Change quality. Another way candy manufacturers have effectively increased prices is through a reduction in quality. In a candy bar, the “gooey” stuff is much cheaper than chocolate. It is frequently tempting for foreign licensees of a major brand name to use inferior ingredients.
  • Change terms. In the old days, most software manufacturers provided free support for their programs—it used to be possible to call the WordPerfect Corporation on an 800 number to get free help. Nowadays, you either have to call a 900 number or have a credit card handy to get help from many software makers. Another way to change terms is to do away with favorable financing terms.

Reference Prices. Consumers often develop internal reference prices, or expectations about what something should cost, based mostly on their experience. Most drivers with long commutes develop a good feeling of what gasoline should cost, and can tell a bargain or a ripoff.

Reference prices are more likely to be more precise for frequently purchased and highly visible products. Therefore, retailers very often promote soft drinks, since consumers tend to have a good idea of prices and these products are quite visible. The trick, then, is to be more expensive on products where price expectations are muddier.

Marketers often try to influence people’s price perceptions through the use of external reference prices—indicators given to the consumer as to how much something should cost. Examples include:

  • Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). This is often pure fiction. The suggested retail prices in certain categories are deliberately set so high that even full service retailers can sell at a “discount.” Thus, although the consumer may contrast the offering price against the MSRP, this latter figure is quite misleading.
  • “SALE! Now $2.99; Regular Price $5.00.” For this strategy to be used legally in most countries, the claim must be true (consistency of enforcement in some countries is, of course, another matter). However, certain products are put on sale so frequently that the “regular” price is meaningless. In the early 1990s, Sears was reported to sell some 55% of its merchandise on sale.
  • “WAS $10.00, now $6.99.”
  • “Sold elsewhere for $150.00; our price: $99.99


Culture is part of the external influences that impact the consumer. That is, culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals.

The definition of culture offered one text is “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of society.”  From this definition, we make the following observations:

  • Culture, as a “complex whole,” is a system of interdependent components.
  • Knowledge and beliefs are important parts.  In the U.S., we know and believe that a person who is skilled and works hard will get ahead. In other countries, it may be believed that differences in outcome result more from luck.  “Chunking,” the name for China in Chinese, literally means “The Middle Kingdom.”  The belief among ancient Chinese that they were in the center of the universe greatly influenced their thinking.
  • Other issues are relevant.  Art, for example, may be reflected in the rather arbitrary practice of wearing ties in some countries and wearing turbans in others.  Morality may be exhibited in the view in the United States that one should not be naked in public.  In Japan, on the other hand, groups of men and women may take steam baths together without perceived as improper.  On the other extreme, women in some Arab countries are not even allowed to reveal their faces.  Notice, by the way, that what at least some countries view as moral may in fact be highly immoral by the standards of another country. 

Culture has several important characteristics: 

 (1)  Culture is comprehensive.  This means that all parts must fit together in some logical fashion.  For example, bowing and a strong desire to avoid the loss of face are unified in their manifestation of the importance of respect. 

 (2)  Culture is learned rather than being something we are born with.  We will consider the mechanics of learning later in the course. 

 (3)  Culture is manifested within boundaries of acceptable behavior.  For example, in American society, one cannot show up to class naked, but wearing anything from a suit and tie to shorts and a T-shirt would usually be acceptable.  Failure to behave within the prescribed norms may lead to sanctions, ranging from being hauled off by the police for indecent exposure to being laughed at by others for wearing a suit at the beach.

 (4)  Conscious awareness of cultural standards is limited.  One American spy was intercepted by the Germans during World War II simply because of the way he held his knife and fork while eating. 

(5)  Cultures fall somewhere on a continuum between static and dynamic depending on how quickly they accept change.  For example, American culture has changed a great deal since the 1950s, while the culture of Saudi Arabia has changed much less.


If the exporting departments are becoming successful but the costs of doing business from headquarters plus time differences, language barriers, and cultural ignorance are hindering the company’s competitiveness in the foreign market, then offices could be built in the foreign countries. Sometimes companies buy firms in the foreign countries to take advantage of relationships, storefronts, factories, and personnel already in place. These offices still report to headquarters in the home market but most of the marketing mix decisions are made in the individual countries since that staff is the most knowledgeable about the target markets. Local product development is based on the needs of local customers. These marketers are considered polycentric because they acknowledge that each market/country has different needs.



Source by U.Archana

The Role of Business Consultants

A consultant is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as IT, management, marketing, or finance etc. Consultants identify companies’ marketing or business needs, and they help companies improve their performance and profitability by analyzing existing business problems and developing future strategies. They help determine the most effective marketing and business solutions to your business, as well as the best ways to execute these solutions for the betterment of your business. Consultants generally use formal methodologies to analyze problems or to suggest better ways of completing business tasks. Consultants help execute your business plan and strategies, allowing you to focus on other important business issues and business meetings.

Management and business consulting grew rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s with industry growth rates of 20%. Consulting is highly cyclical and is sensitive to general economic conditions. The consulting industry declined between 2001 to 2003, but has been experiencing some growth since.

Nowadays there are three major types of consulting firms. One type is the larger consulting firm that offers a wide variety of consulting services, ranging from IT consulting to management consulting. Another type is the established management and strategic consulting firms that focus mainly on management consulting that covers any specific industry. Yet another type is the smaller boutique consulting firms with consulting focus and expertise on specific industries or technologies.

The more established consulting firms today include Arthur D. Little, a general management consulting firm; Booz Allen Hamilton was the first consulting firm to serve clients in both the government and the industry; McKinsey & Company, was one of the first pure management consulting firm and currently leads the field. It was also one of the first consulting firms to hire graduates of top MBA schools rather than hiring experienced industry personnel. Boston Consulting Group brought an analytical approach to the study of strategy and management. Bain & Company introduced its focus on shareholder wealth. Traditional accounting companies such as Arthur Andersen and global IT services firms such as IBM also set up consulting departments.

Businesses or companies can engage a business or management consulting firm or an individual business consultant who will draw up suitable business plans and strategies and implement them. Consultants are generally well paid with some business consultants charging $150 per hour, and sometimes even as high as $2,000 per day for their services.

Source by Chong Chavez

Wreath Making As A Home-Based Business

So you enjoy making wreaths and have decided to go into business for yourself. Congratulations, that sounds like a positive idea and hopefully will be a profitable one. First, however, you will want to make your business plans so that your start up won’t also be your shut down. You will want first of all to make sure of your work space. Do you have an area that can be dedicated specifically to wreath making? Making wreaths in front of the TV is one thing when it’s a hobby/craft project but are you, and other family members, going to be willing for this space to be dedicated full time to wreath making? If not, do you have another place in your home that can be used as your place of business, perhaps a little used guest room or a part of the basement could be dedicated to this.

Once you have your work area secured, what about a storage area for finished wreaths and for materials? There may be times when you will want to temporarily store some of your wreaths until an order is completed. For some wreaths, this will call for a cold or cool area where they can be properly maintained. Also, buying materials in bulk at bargain rates is a bonus, but you’ll need to be able to store the materials properly.

Designing and printing up a brochure and some business cards is a good idea also. Not all potential customers will be able to talk with you immediately, but having a business card and brochure to leave will give them the opportunity to check over your product a little more closely on their own.

You will also need a name for your business. You will need something to put on those brochures and business cards.

A product display unit is nice also. Making a photo album of your wreaths will enable you to show potential customers something of your work without trying to carry a lot of it around with you.

You might want to talk with the bank also and find out about setting up a business checking account. Many wholesalers insist that customers must use business checks in order to prove that they are a legitimate business.

You will need a bookkeeping system also so that you can keep track of how much you are taking in and paying out. Also, when tax time comes, and it will, this will be a big asset to you and may just help you in making sure that you are remembering everything. Also, you may be able to deduct a certain percentage of your household expenses as business expenses if your business is being run from your home. This also includes gas and wear and tear on your vehicle.

Lastly, you will need a sales book and pen. Go out and get orders, don’t take more than you can fill, and don’t forget to enjoy yourself. Congratulations on your new business.

Source by Craig Garrett

Is the future of the world economies in africa's hands?

The continent of Africa is going through an upsurge economically, with GDP growth rates averaging about 50% annually. According to the IMF the world’s fastest growing economies will be in Africa.

IMF also forecast that seven of the world’s ten fasten growing economies will be in Africa, with Ethiopia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Congo, Ghana, Zambia and Nigeria topping the list. Zambia is one of the continent’s promising economies growing at 7.6% in 2010 and 6.6% in 2011.

Another exemplary example is Kenya were mobile phone bank transfers have revolutionised rural access to cash just two years after the mobile banking system M-Pesa was introduced in 2007.                    M-Pesa is a mobile-phone based money transfer and micro financing service for Safaricom and Vodacom, the largest mobile network operator in Kenya and Tanzania. Currently the most developed mobile payment system in the developing world, M-Pesa allows users with a national ID card or passport to deposit, withdraw, and transfer money easily with a mobile device. 40% of the Kenyan adult population has become customers.

If the middle class is an integral sign of economic growth then the future economic growth for Africa is Sanguine, according to an African Development Bank report the projections by 2030 for much of the continent is that it will have a middle class majority and that consumer spending will soar from $680 billion to $2.2 trillion.

Already Uganda has shifted from having one university to 30 in over two decades. They are also of the view that population growth, will lead to high levels of high levels of economic growth if the right policies are put in place.

The report noted that demographic trends are  likely to provide an opportunity to reduce poverty and yield a demographic dividend that will lead to economic success as it did in the Asian emerging markets.

 According to Netherlands – African Business Council (NABC) four reasons stand out as to why Africa’s, Africa is now booming and has considerable discretionary spending power, Africa is poised to have the largest labour force in the world, African workers are better educated than before and Africa can easily become the world’s breadbasket with 60% of the world’s unused cropland.

Over the next 40 years, Africa’s population is set to double from one billion to two billion; this may as well enrich the different income portfolios. Africa should still deal with the niggling issue of human rights and slay the four demons of poverty, bad leadership, health and ignorance (education) but the future still looks bright.

Source by Studencia

What Is New Wave Marketing

The marketing industry is highly dynamic and marketers are challenged all the time to come up with creative ways to increase brand awareness, market share and sales. It is thus crucial to keep up with new marketing concepts and strategies developed over time and this is where New Wave Marketing comes in.

According to Hermawan Kartajaya, a highly regarded marketing guru from Asia – Indonesia, the famous nine principles of marketing, as we all have learned to know and applied in our marketing strategies, need to be revised and adapt to the modern world today and these new principles will be known as New Wave Marketing.  Whether or not they will actually replaced the old terms from now on has not been announced.

Just to point out, The nine principles of marketing by Phlip Kotler also referred as “Legacy Marketing” are:

  1. Segmentation,
  2. Targeting,
  3. Positioning,
  4. Differentiation,
  5. Marketing-Mix (Product, Price, Place, Promotion),
  6. Selling,
  7. Brand,
  8. Service,
  9. Process

12 C of New Wave Marketing

The new elements or principles has now been termed the 12 C of “New Wave Marketing” and they are:

  • Communitization,
  • Confirming,
  • Clarifying,
  • Coding,
  • Crowd-Combo (Co-Creation, Currency, Communal Activation, Conversation),
  • Commercialization,
  • Character,
  • Caring,
  • Collaboration

You will be able to understand the new terms better with the illustration below and you will see that the New Wave Marketing is actually a replacement of terms of the Nine Principles of Marketing.

  • Segmentation = Communitization
  • Targeting = Confirming
  • Positioning = Clarifying
  • Differentiation = Coding
  • Marketing-Mix = Crowd-Combo
  • Product = Co-Creation
  • Price = Currency
  • Place =Communal Activation
  • Promotion = Conversation
  • Selling = Commercialization
  • Brand = Character
  • Service = Caring
  • Process = Collaboration

These new terms described the principles of Marketing better than the previous terms and make more sense in the new world today. The changes in information technology especially the internet including social marketing has revolutionized how we communicate with one another, creating more opportunities as well as threats to all businesses.

The influence of the internet world also contributed to the evolution of Internet Marketing Strategies and New Wave Marketing principles and many large successful businesses that applied them have become successful companies.

Just like the 9 principles of Marketing that needs adaption to the new world, we too need to adapt to the New Wave Marketing and apply them to our business to face this new world.

These New Wave Marketing principles, when applied, allows companies to reap huge benefits, “getting high impact with low costs” with sustainable competitive advantage over others that have not applied it.

Source by Bobby Leong

Effects of Bad Marketing

Marketing is the full description of all steps and procedures required to lead to sales. These steps are particularly aimed at ensuring that what is delivered to the consumer satisfies consumer requirements with a profit. Marketing objectives and targets must be continually evaluated, competitors strategies identified and critically interpreted to develop ones that exceed them by far. In marketing papers like marketing essay and marketing research paper the aim is to investigate a problem in the market and provide a viable solution. Through research is required in order to facilitate substantial knowledge on the problem and accurate identification of the market niche. A marketing essay must be properly marketed to avoid effects of bad marketing.

Bad marketing in a marketing essay is characterized by poor company objectives. The objectives could be lack of profitability, low volume in the market share or production capacity utilization or even low sales rank in the market, lack of stability which includes low variance in profitability. The effects of poor company objectives are that they are never suitable, measurable, acceptable or motivating. Another effect of bad marketing on marketing essay is outdated competition strategies. The outdated competitive strategies would include offering to buyers poor quality products at high prices, or making products of lower quality than competitors. The competitive strategies in a marketing essay would be low cost leadership e.g. small scale production, hard to manufacture product designs, unpredictably increasing product costs to counter the loses incurred and so on.

Bad marketing of marketing essay is also characterized by poor market niche identification. Here the product targets few potential consumers making it hard to archive the company objectives like the one on profitability. In addition bad marketing on marketing essay leads to poor market objectives, this means that the company can’t achieve viable level of sales as well as increase or maintain, maximize cash flow or sustain profitability. A marketing essay with bad marketing experiences problems in laying out marketing strategies. This simply means that the marketing objectives as outlined can never be realized. As a result there would be low willingness or ability by consumers to by the product, decreased level of consumption and replacement due to decreased rate of purchase, loss of consumers by lack of line extensions, lack of bundling ability as well as trailing in the price/cost dominance.

Quality of marketing programs also play and important role in marketing essay. The effect of bad marketing on market is viewed firstly in the manner in which consumers are informed, persuaded and influenced to consume a product. Poor promotion is viewed through inefficient hence ineffective advertising, poor publicity, and inadequate sales promotions without clear promotions objectives, quality information and poor criteria for measuring success.  Poor promotions objectives don’t provide information, doesn’t increase demand differentiate the products nor stabilize the sales.

Use of very expensive advertising media is also a bad marketing strategy that leads to low quality marketing essay. This will affect the company’s profit levels since the advertising fees are too high.  Poor pricing is another bad marketing factor on marketing essay. With the main aim of company being increased profitability, poor pricing of products without consideration of the consumer leads to lose of trust in individuals on a given company and product which lowers sales and profits.

Source by Charles Miller

Online Marketing Strategies: What is Acquisition Marketing?

Online marketing can no longer be considered as an afterthought when developing a marketing strategy. In 2008, Ofcom reported that online marketing represented a fifth of total UK revenues from advertising – and we believe it’s still got a long way to go.

There are good reasons for its unprecedented growth. One of the main reasons online marketing has always been at an advantage to other forms of marketing is because of its ability to drive acquisition, in such a transparent and accountable way.

More often than not, it is ‘acquisition marketing’ that clients are looking for – marketing with the end goal of acquiring new business. A well thought out acquisition marketing shouldn’t even stop there, but should really continue into the realms of adding value to the acquired customers to ensure repeat business where applicable, and/or referrals.

How to achieve acquisition through online marketing

In order to achieve effective acquisition marketing, there needs to be a clear and cohesive pathway for the customer to follow, right from the first click through to the point of conversion. This starts with a clear understanding of what you want the customer to do. If this isn’t clear in your mind, then it’s going to be very hard for the customer to figure out.

A marketing campaign which successfully brings thousands of people through to your site, all of whom are not particularly interested in what you have to offer and so leave immediately once they get there, cannot be called acquisition marketing. Traffic is simply a means to an end, and as such – can become a time consuming red herring.

A campaign which brings in thousands of people who are interested in your products or services, only for them to be bamboozled with such labyrinthine navigation or off-putting messages or design that they give up and go elsewhere before converting, is also not acquisition marketing.
A successful acquisition campaign must keep the visitor engaged at every single point along their journey towards becoming one of your valued customers.

This can only result from a genuinely integrated approach to online marketing, working on all areas of a campaign simultaneously, with the sole aim of leading visitors through seamlessly to the point of purchase or conversion. Implementing funnel / drop-off tracking is also key in this process, as often there is more to learn from the ‘non-converters’ than the ‘converters’.

Short AND long-term benefits

Despite our strong belief in acquisition marketing, there is clearly still a place for brand building exercises which will not only change or enforce your consumers’ perceptions of you over time, but also deliver better recall, referral and brand equity.

But with acquisition marketing, we look for measurable ways to increase levels of sales and conversions in a much shorter space of time. Part of the trick here is to not only make the process easy for customers, but also to spend time understanding their mindset, needs and concerns. By understanding these, we can begin to alleviate them – by offering them extra information, assurance or testimonials along the conversion funnel. Ideally, we want to dispel any concerns they have before they have even manifested.

Working with this mindset, we are able to take marketing forms such as pay-per-click advertising, and make them work even more efficiently than they are already.

Keeping your customers happy

At atom42, we get most of our business through referrals. When people have had a good experience with a customer or product, they simply can’t spread the word fast enough. Looking after your customers in the same way is one reason why acquisition marketing is also of long-term. Happy customers do two things: return and refer.

Increasingly, as natural SEO has evolved from being focused on “onsite” optimisation techniques – and moved into using more and more “offsite” factors when determining a site’s importance – we see an increasing number of long-term benefits from our SEO work as well – including link building, content optimisation and strategic partnerships – all of which can yield results for many years to come.

The significance of measurability

The real key to acquisition marketing is measurability, and this is something uniquely suited to online marketing.

For those in the business of online marketing, there are now an almost infinite number of tools at our disposal for diagnosing precisely what kind of results our efforts are generating with our online marketing techniques.

This means that we can prove without doubt that we are gaining the right kinds of results for our clients, with an extraordinary amount of precision. It’s no wonder that, according to the European Online Advertising Through 2013 report, online ad spend is predicted to carry on growing throughout the recession.

Source by Andrew Atalla