From Street Dogs to Tiger Hounds

The pitch black darkness of the night was broken by the glow of lanterns, It appeared that someone was walking along the embankment. The faint rustling of the receding waters from the canal was the only audible sound. People of the village had locked their doors right after sundown, no one dares to venture out at night especially since the man-eater has been up and about. Even if people do need to go out, the embankment is taboo as it lies just beside the canal, separating the village from the forest. A 50ft gap that the Tiger crosses easily every night when it enters the village.

As the light approaches some figures become visible, some men with sticks and you can barely make out some scrawny looking dogs at their heel. The lead dog suddenly stops and turns towards the forest. As if by clockwork all the other 4 do the same. The handlers immediately stop and hold up the lanterns as if to shed some light into the dark foliage on the opposite bank. The quiet night seems to have fallen ever more silent. The lead dog, Bullet utters a low muffled growl which is picked up by the other canines as well. The whole demeanor of the group changes as you can almost feel that something is in the air – nervous tension, an anticipation of things to come. The dogs seem transfixed on the other bank, looking intently as if to see something in the dark. Sure enough they must’ve picked up on the scent of something.

Suddenly following Bullet’s lead the whole pack breaks out barking. The almost deafening crescendo piercing the death of the night. As if on cue the human handlers started shouting, at the top of their lungs while stomping the ground with their sticks and feet. It was as if, all hell had broken loose. Amidst the deafening sounds the lead handler Shubol, shines his torch on the darkness of opposite bank. After a few sweeps it stops at some Goran bushes. Sure enough two red orbs shine back at the group. It’s a Tiger all right. The striped terror of Chandpai.

At the sight of the Tiger, or more so it’s eyes, the barking and shouting seemed to jump many folds. As if to silence the usurpers a heavy set growl returned from the other side. However neither courageous dogs nor their brave handlers seemed to let up. While Bullet held his ground, Tom and Som, the two brothers strained at the leash, as if lunging to have a go at the mighty beast, on the other side. Bittu and Sheikh, the rear guard were a few steps behind but were no less menacing, in their display.

Slowly the orbs on the other side started to move, disappearing from time to time only to reappear a few yards away. Both tiger hounds and their handlers moved, along the embankment, parallel to the forest. At one point, the Tiger let out a deafening roar as if to silence the group once and for all, you can almost just imagine its surprise, when not only did they not let up, rather they seemed to press on harder.

As suddenly as it appeared, the orbs were gone and slowly but surely you could make out the decline in the intensity of the barking and shouting. After a few minutes it stopped altogether. The dogs appeared relaxed and Som and Sheikh sat down on their haunches. Only the sound of panting and heavy breathing could now be heard. The Tiger was gone. Both dogs and handlers seemed to be relaxed and the only visible signs of the tense moments before, were the sweaty foreheads of the handlers and heavy breathing of the dogs.

The tiger hounds of Chandpai had warded off the troublesome Tiger for the night leaving villagers to sleep in peace. The team of 5 brave handlers and their even braver dogs armed only with sticks, lanterns and flashlights, had stopped a Bengal Tiger that had already earned the reputation of being a “Man eater”, in its tracks and saved the villagers of Chandpai and their livestock for one more night.

This innovative initiative was one of several initiatives taken by Dr. Adam Barlow and Monirul of the “Tiger Response Team” of “The Sunder Bans Tiger Project” in reducing Human, tiger conflict on the villages in the fringes of the largest mangrove forest of the world, The Sunder Bans.

The base of operations was the village of Chandpai, right on the edge of the forest, separated only by a canal. Mariel, an experienced dog trainer from the U.S. was brought in to start the Tiger hound project. After extensive search from among dozens of local village dogs, 5 dogs were chosen, all alpha males. The first barrier was to get the dogs to work with each other, as being Alpha males they were highly dominant and frequent fights broke out. Once the animals were socialized, their actual training began. Both the handlers and dogs received extensive training, first on obedience which w as a hurdle as these dogs had never been trained even on the basics. After they graduated they were shown their first Tiger, a captive animal at a Zoo. Tom and Som, the two brothers had been most impressive and within minutes, the other dogs nervous at first joined in and ultimately the tiger behind bars was visibly nervous. Mariel left after completion of the training, giving leadership of the pack to star dog Bullet and his handler Shubol.

Now the people of Chandpai sleep a lot better because they know that the Tiger hounds and their handlers are out on patrol. The initiative showed just how some scrawny, scuffed up local dogs from a small village on the south of Bangladesh could be trained to stand their ground and ward off a mighty animal as a Tiger. The small but strong line of defense of the helpless people of an impoverished village, against a terror of the night, a man-eating tiger of the Sunder Bans.

*Note: The incident described is a work of fiction based on the Tiger hounds of the Sunder Bans.

Source by Fida Habib

Who Owns the Public Schools?

Part of the series: School Is Hell

Who Owns the Public Schools?

“Without a real private competitive market for education in America, all that is available is what the state education central planners choose to provide.”

— Richard M. Ebeling, President, The Future of Freedom Foundation

The so-called “public” school system does not belong to the public; it is owned and run by the government. Therefore, the public schools serve government needs, not the public’s needs. In contrast, private schools are owned and run (and are paid for directly) by members of the public, and are accountable to their patrons.

We must not make the mistake of believing that “We, the people,” are our government. While politicians and other officials claim to represent us, they are an elite class who pay little attention to their constituents. Further, the school system is a world of its own that has virtually no responsibility to the public it pretends to serve. Its superintendents actually work for the state department of education. Their only connection with the town is that local residents are forced to pay their salaries.

Also, we should not expect public schools to offer real education. They are intended to provide schooling only – basic concepts of literacy and numeracy, with a shallow smattering of other knowledge. However, even those basic skills are sorely neglected in today’s schools. They are crowded out by political mandates, social engineering and other concerns. The result is a confusing hodgepodge of opinions, attitudes and values (often contrary to family and religious traditions) with no cohesion, no consistency and no real point other than to turn out docile group-thinkers who will be dependent on the government.

“Local control” of public education simply does not exist. Local school boards do not represent the people who elect them. In my state, CT, state law says, “School boards are not agents of their towns, but are creatures of the state.” In other words, the school boards are puppets of the state education bureaucracy, which also controls the state legislature on schooling issues. School board members are also members of political parties and are responsive to their pressures. They simply pretend to control the schools when in fact they decide only trivial details. More and more, what we have is a national school system controlled from distant offices by non-elected bureaucrats with unknown agendas. Even state control is giving way to a virtual federal takeover, through such bad laws as No Child Left Behind and Goals 2000.

The school wars rage on because the system’s goals for children are virtually the opposite of the goals that parents have for them. The government uses its schools in order to turn out masses of obedient controllable employees and soldiers; therefore, it offers an experience that conditions our children for low level jobs and/or the military. That should explain why the state-run schools offer a routine that says to children, “Sit down, be quiet, don’t ask questions, we’ll tell you what to think and do.” To parents, it says, “We don’t care what you want.”

Meanwhile, parents are consistently disappointed by what the government schools offer their kids, but are helpless to change them. School board meetings are charades arranged by the employees in order to prevent input from parents and the public. The entire show is controlled by state and local administrators and the employee unions in order to benefit themselves, not the public or the children.

Parents should not expect the public schools to offer real education, and yet many still do. The government school system has never had the intention to offer what most parents want. Public school is a union-controlled program of coercion paid for by the force of taxation. The employees’ qualifications are questionable, their “certifications” are bogus, “tenure” is a sham, and their union constantly seeks maximum pay for minimum work. It is designed to provide political and social indoctrination, with only a minimum of skills and knowledge, but not education. The result is mediocrity, secrecy, and deception with accountability to no one. Fewer and fewer people believe that government is an appropriate agency to offer “public education.”

Source by Ned Vare

Finding the Best Loan for Your Needs

Reputation is Everything

The best unsecured personal loans come from lenders who are doing their best to help people. They were tired of seeing hard working consumers fall between the cracks because they didn’t have a high enough credit score. Not everyone with poor credit was able to prevent it from happening. Some were the result of the economy and others due to health problems.

Yet the typical lender doesn’t look at any of those situations. Instead, they look at your credit score, your debts, and your income. Find a lender offering the best unsecured personal loans without any credit check and without any difficult paperwork process.


Find a provider who has very few requirements for you to get the money. They typically will need income verification and a photo ID. Some need much more so you need to think about what they need and what you have. Don’t apply with a lender who can’t get you approved due to your scenario and profile.


You should be able to fill out the documents for the best unsecured personal loans in a matter of minutes. You only need to offer a few basic details. The application can be done in person or it can be done online. Make sure the lender can offer you the dollar amount you need so you don’t get part of the money but not all of it. Don’t get into the habit of borrowing from more than one.

Find one lender who can help you get your needs met. The application should have a place for you to enter the amount of money you need. Once your application is reviewed you may be given an offer. Make sure you review the interest rate, any fees, and your repayment installment amounts. Don’t accept it unless everything looks perfect and you can afford it.

Getting your Money

A common question is when you will get your money and how you will get it. The best unsecured personal loans do all they can to get the money to you quickly. This can include electronically sending it to your bank account or issuing you a check. With many locations, you can walk out in an hour or less with the money.

For online offers, you may be able to have the money in one business day. Their goal is to make sure you get the money very fast. When you need money, the last thing you want is a long wait. They strive to get it for you in very little time.

Customer Service

You may need help with a specific scenario, making a payment, or getting information about best unsecured personal loans. Contacting their customer support should be easy and fast. They should be willing to help you by phone or online in a friendly and efficient way. Find out what the reviews have to say about their support before you work with them.

The last thing you want is to discover when you need the help the most, they aren’t able to do anything for you. Long wait times, unanswered emails, and the wrong information can make it a hard learning experience. Stick with a lender who can help you get results in the least amount of time.

Source by Imogen Wright

Two Excellent Hospitals in Changchun, China

Changchun, situated in northeast China, is the capital and largest city of Jilin province. It is a major industrial, transportation, tourist and cultural center of this part of China and is home to the biggest vehicle producer of the country, FAW. The city has a pleasant climate and is often referred to as the forest city, the spring city and the city of automobiles and films. Like all other major cities in China, Changchun also has a well-developed medical service sector. The leading hospitals are provided with the latest facilities and offer the service of eminent doctors at an affordable cost. This is a summary of some of the well known hospitals in Changchun.

China-Japan Union Hospital situated at 126 Xiantai Street in Changchun in the Development Zone is a huge, state-owned, modern hospital with 1550 beds. The hospital was founded in 1949. This tertiary level hospital is managed by the Ministry of Health and was the first A-hospital in the province. This advanced hospital has an area of 201900 square meters and a construction area of 134,400 square meters. The hospital employs 1501 staff members. There are 274 senior medical staff including 80 professors and 156 associate professors. The Japanese government invested 2.6 billion Yen in the venture and this is why it is also referred to as the China-Japan Friendship Hospital. This service-oriented hospital puts great emphasis on the use of modern technology, high levels of quality and is approved as a “Baby Friendly Hospital” by WHO, UNICEF and by the National Drug Clinical Research Center in the Chinese government. The center has full-fledged departments in all major as well as rare specialties including rheumatology, hematology, infectious diseases, honored traditional Chinese medicine, nuclear medicine and electrical diagnosis.

The First Clinical Hospital of Jilin University is another leading hospital in the country and is located at No 71, Xinmin Street in Changchun, near the beautiful Chaoyang Park. The hospital has a 1,100 bed capacity central hospital and 350 bed capacity subsidiary hospital both of which are managed by the Public Health Ministry. This advanced hospital with a 72,650 m2 area has a glorious history of 61 years. The hospital employs 1855 staff including 113 professors and 232 advisors. It has spacious outpatient department that treats over 1,520,000 people annually. The center has acquired 35 prizes of scientific and technological advancement given by the national and provincial governments during the last decade.

Source by Belle Kay

Top 5 Ideas For Retirement Gifts

When browsing for retirement gifts, there is one simple rule to keep in mind above all else. What will the retiree do with their free time? Each person chooses to spend their retirement in a different way, and figuring out what your friend, relative, or co-worker has planned for their newly acquired free time will steer you in the right direction. Nonetheless, there are some very popular and practical alternatives that in 2010 are cropping up at the tops of retirees wish lists.

  • Technology
    Don’t be so surprised–even Grandma has a Facebook nowadays! As it turns out, retirees are thrilled to have time to stay connected via the internet to old friends and family. They send emails, upload photos, and even create travel blogs to share with loved ones. A new gadget helps a retiree feel young and stay young. One extremely popular gadget for retirees in 2010 is an e-reader. Instead of purchasing a generic bookstore gift card, consider an e-reader as a nice gift for your retiree. They will be able to take their library with them everywhere, including plane flights, and can shop for books from anywhere they like. The latest e-readers are lightweight, user friendly, and can store massive quantities of e-books. Further, e-books are significantly less expensive than the latest hardcover, so your retiree will be able to hold onto their limited retirement funds. It is not only a practical gift, but a highly desired one.

  • Gift Certificates
    Perhaps you know someone who is about to retire, but are not close enough to them to pick out a gift you know they will enjoy. A gift card, along with a nice card, is an excellent alternative. However, those who have worked long enough to make it to retirement have also probably acquired a lot of things during their lives. Instead of opting for a traditional gift card-in which an object is the end result of the gift-try selecting a gift card for an experience or activity the retiree can enjoy. If they are a thrill-seeker, then go for a skydiving or rock climbing gift certificate. If they enjoy a refined environment, perhaps vouchers for a play or ballet would be appropriate. You can get gift cards or gift vouchers to almost anything, so use your imagination and the knowledge you have about the person who is retiring. Certificates to fancy restaurants, movie theaters, dancing studios, spas and golf resorts are just a few of endless options.

  • Luxury Gifts
    Once you retire, the money you have is generally limited and requires serious planning and budgeting to stretch it to the maximum. Many people reach retirement with too little funds to lead the lifestyle they would have liked to enjoy while receiving their working paycheck-except they lacked the available time. Not surprisingly, retirees love to receive the gift of these luxuries. Your retiree might love a day spa or massage voucher, or perhaps a golfing or fancy dinner voucher. Alternatively, consider an expensive bottle of wine, a gift basket of foreign delicacies, or a collection of exotic coffee and tea blends. A little time to splurge on the finer things in life is something that anyone can-and will-enjoy.

  • Travel Gifts
    Unless you have a job that requires a lot of travel, most people do not get to experience the world until they have reached retirement. If you are lucky, you have been planning a retirement budget to include the travel expenses you plan to incur during retirement. However, if you are shopping for someone who is about to retire that does plan on traveling, then a gift to aid in their journey can be the most appreciated. Pieces of luggage, passport wallets, and luggage tags are all useful gifts. Take it a step further and consider digital cameras, mini travel computers, nice journals and scrapbooks, and language guides as unconventional aids to enjoy, capture, share, and remember their journeys.

  • Hobby Gifts
    When hearing hobby gifts, you may think golf clubs and scrapbooking accessories. Though these may still be major hobbies of some retirees, today’s workforce headed towards retirement as a much more modernized idea of hobbies. Digital photography, video editing, sculpting and painting, and even SCUBA diving are all closer to the direction that today’s retirees are heading. The hobbies that your retiree is interested in are not likely to be the average cookie-cutter activities. Find out what their personal passion truly is, and if it is something you are unfamiliar with then be sure to ask the advice of a sales representative or do some internet searching before picking your final selection.

Source by Meghan Teixeira

Popular Joint Ventures That Work

All around our economy, we find evidence of successful joint ventures. Look in the newspaper. Watch it on the news. Find it on billboards and advertisements. The most popular JV’s have exerted a large influence on our society, our economy, as well as technological developments.

In America, and in most advanced countries in the world where the government has great influence and regulation over mergers and acquisitions, companies find that joint ventures are a great way to join forces without the strict government oversight. Below are some of the examples of joint ventures and the results you see almost every day.

Sony and Ericsson’s Joint Venture

Japanese electronics giant, Sony, has been a leading manufacturer of consumer electronics, including audio, video, and communications, for decades. Along with their established manufacturing pervasiveness, Sony has had a global marketing dominance in all their products, including motion pictures and music recordings. With all their marketing expertise, they still needed an innovative technology expert to develop a marketing relationship.

Enter the Swedish technology expert, Ericsson. Ericsson specialized in developing innovative telecommunications equipment for mobile networks. In 2001, Sony and Ericsson teamed up in a 50-50 joint venture now known worldwide as Sony Ericsson to develop and establish their innovative brand as the most attractive and dominant in the mobile handset industry. Their successful joint venture has resulted in the development, production, and marketing of some of the best handheld mobile phones available today.

Verizon and Vodafone’s JV Endeavors

And continuing with the mobile communications industry, who hasn?t seen the nice guy asking, ?can you hear me now?? for Verizon Wireless? Verizon Communications was a leading deliverer of broadband and other wireless communications products. In 2000, they wanted to jump into the mobile wireless network provider industry and found a partner with European wireless behemoth, Vodafone.

Vodafone was the world?s leading international mobile communications group, providing wireless service to hundreds of millions of customers. They were able to tap into the North American market with a strategic joint venture with Verizon Communications. By combining Verizon?s cellular, PCS, and paging assets with Vodafone?s wireless communications technology and marketing, they have now become the nation?s ?most reliable? and largest wireless network.

Joint Venture Between Mazda and Ford

Ford Motor Company had an available parts casting center located in Flat Rock, Michigan. Mazda saw an opportunity to purchase and rebuild the plant to begin producing a line of automobiles. After Mazda had success with their MX-6 models and producing Ford?s own Probe model, Ford teamed up with Mazda to form a joint venture company, AutoAlliance International in 1992. Since then, they have produced some of the leading automobile models, including the Ford Cougar line, Ford Mustang, and the Mazda 6.

These are just a few examples of the most visible and popular joint ventures in North America and the world. Though these joint ventures are large in scale jumping into international business and marketing, even small business owners can learn from them. Combining capital, technology, and marketing savvy are just a few of the ways business owners and entrepreneurs can create joint ventures. Using creativity and experience in business, there is virtually no limit in how two or more companies can combine to form a joint venture.

Copyright (c) 2009 Christian Fea

Source by Christian Fea

Prepare for Emergency Commercial Roof Repair With These Simple Steps

Your company’s roof is what keeps your business protected from the elements, but it’s probably not something you give much thought to until you suddenly notice the leak in the conference room. This is when you’ll need to call a roofer for commercial roof repairs. Some of the more common reasons you’ll find leaks in your roof include the following:

– Deterioration due to constant exposure to the elements and UV radiation

– Broken or missing shingles from high winds

– Falling tree limbs during a storm

– Failed flashing around penetrations like vent stacks, skylights, or a chimney

– Clogged, backed-up gutters

Steps to Take Before an Emergency Happens

Although you can’t prevent every possible cause of roof damage, you can take the following steps now to make an emergency situation less stressful and help reduce the likelihood of unexpected damage and leaks.

Find a Reliable and Dependable Roofer

To avoid searching for a roofer when water is pouring into your business or home, start vetting contractors now. Look for a contractor who’s well established, and contact references to judge their reputation for customer service, reliability, and responsiveness. An experienced roofer should also have certifications from leading manufacturers and be fully insured. Once you choose a contractor, keep their phone number handy so you can reach them if an emergency occurs.

Take Care of Necessary Problems and Repairs

Have your contractor inspect the roof and get any problems fixed before they escalate. Taking care of minor issues like broken or missing shingles, damaged flashing or poorly-installed ridge caps right away can also lessen the likelihood of leaks during a storm or heavy rain. Without these necessary commercial roof repairs, you could suffer not only extreme damage but also potential interruption to your daily business operations as well.

Read Your Building Owner’s Insurance Policy

It’s important to know whether you’re covered for any type of natural disaster or accident, or if you only have coverage for specific events like fire, hail, or lightning. It’s also good to learn if the amount you’ll get reimbursed for includes roof repairs or if a replacement is affected by the age of your roof. Many business owners are focused on other aspects of their business insurance policy, but understanding what will be covered in the event of damage to any part of your commercial building is just as important.

Know How to Shut Off Utilities

Knowing how to quickly shut off the flow from utilities if your roof sustains extensive damage during a storm may help you prevent a potential fire, flood, gas leak, or even an explosion. Speak with the utility company if you are unsure as to how to manually shut off your utilities.

All of the above is vital to increasing the lifespan of your roof and may mitigate the damage if an emergency situation occurs. And while you always want to save money on maintaining your commercial building, commercial roof repairs and maintenance are an essential part of being a business owner. Having a reliable roofing contractor that you can depend on in a moment’s notice is crucial to ensuring that your roofing issues don’t interfere with your company’s ability to operate on a day-to-day basis.

Source by Antoinette Ayana

Pollution in Kolkata – Why a Whole City is Turning Into a Health Hazard!

Pollution levels across India are some of the highest anywhere in the world. And on top of this pile of polluted places sits Kolkata. A once beautiful city has been reduced to a huge garbage yard with tons of plastic waste strewn on every square inch of the city. Along with the number of aging buses and trucks spewing smoke – the various coal fires and dusty construction sites, have made the landscape a wasteland. But what has conspired to create this situation? Why has the West Bengal government turned a blind eye to the transport contractors?

Politics has always been a prominent part of the Kolkata culture. However the excessive politicizing of every issue has made it extremely difficult for legislation to be formed. The government in its quandary chooses to sleep over the various bills in the interest of protecting the environment – rather than irk the contractors who pay for the party funds. This has led to an unhealthy environment of government apathy and general callousness, especially in taking care of the living conditions. In its mandate to “provide rights to the poor” they have totally neglected the harm being caused to the environment by the millions of poor in the city.

The classic case of rampant pollution in the city of Kolkata are the buses and trucks plying the roads. In a recent move, a number of NGOs had petitioned that the pollution norms be strictly applied to the errant bus contractors. However the ministry decided to make the announcement with a rider that “people with genuine reasons can get a reprieve from the pollution control measures”!! This kind of obvious molly coddling of the transport contractors have further emboldened them, making it impossible for the police on the ground to fine the law breakers.

Plastic bags is another area where the West Bengal government has failed to check pollution. Elsewhere in all other major cities of India, plastic bags are banned as they cause widespread pollution which is difficult to remove. But not in Kolkata – where the “poor” have to carry their daily bread in plastic bags! The result is that the drainage system is choked in the city and the roads look like an unending garbage yard. Filth and disease accumulate in this waste causing diseases and generally making the whole city an unhealthy place to live in.

The present CPIM government is on its way out. They lost in all the by-polls. Here is hoping that the new government when it arrives, will be able to get rid pf the lethargy and inaction. If the laws are not implemented soon this city is going to become uninhabitable in the next few years! It is time the West Bengal government understood that “giving rights to the poor” does not mean that the environment can be abused!

Source by Surajit Ray

Role of the FEDAI

The Authorized dealers have to furnish an undertaking to the RBI in adhering to the terms and conditions that are introduced from time to time by the FEDAI. Thus, there are different rules for different transactions primarily to safeguard the interest of the importers, exporters’, general public as a whole and also the authorized dealers. FEDAI lays down the terms and conditions that survey the daily Forex transactions in India. Apart from this, it also supports its associate banks with regard to advising and assisting in the training of its personnel. It then certifies the foreign exchange brokers of India and announces the exchange rates to its associate banks.

The role of Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India has witnessed a steady change over the past few years largely because of the ongoing integration of the international financial sectors and increase in liberalization. Several amendments have taken place in the foreign exchange after witnessing liberation of the financial sector from government regulations. In such circumstances, FEDAI acts as a catalyst and ensures smooth functioning of the markets while closely co-coordinating with the Reserve Bank of India and other group organizations. It takes maximum advantage from other associate banks through constant improvement in areas such as product customization, market intelligence, risk management, etc.

The topic of Foreign Exchange is very vast and very few bankers have gained mastery over. FEDAI has its own website which announces periodical market-related data which is accessible to the general public and to its members. In the year 2008, the FEDAI has released a treatise and a brochure marking the completion of its 50 years. It talks about the foreign exchange facilities that will be of great assistance to Indian citizens. It also provides an in-depth understanding and self-awareness among the staff members of the Authorized Dealers’ branch whose responsibility is to manage customers concerns and improve the customer service quality.

The Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India and RBI have shared an unparalleled and close affiliation all these years. While there isn’t any official association with the RBI, FEDAI works under Reserve Bank’s guidelines. FEDAI has been a partner to many since its inception to implement best practices in the Foreign Exchange trade. Furthermore, FEDAI has been instrumental in being a communication channel between the authorized dealers and the Reserve Bank and continues to offer its support and important insights.

Source by Jayden William

A Brief Introduction to Cricket

Cricket is a modern day sport played between two teams. Each team has eleven players. The game is played on an oval or round shaped ground which has a rectangular 22 yard long pitch at the center. One team bats to score as many runs as possible. The other team stops the run flow by dismissing the batsmen. A run is scored when a batsman hits the ball with his bat, runs to opposite end of pitch and touches the crease there without being dismissed.

There are three formats of the game:

a) Test Cricket

b) One Day Cricket

c) Twenty-Twenty

Test Cricket

The oldest form of cricket is Test Cricket. The game of cricket actually evolved with Test Cricket. Records show that first ever test match was played between Australia and England in the year 1876-77. The game of cricket has come a long way since then. The rules have changed a lot. A test match is played over a period of five days with each team batting and bowling twice. Maximum over that can be bowled in a day is 90 while there is no limit on the number of over a single bowler can bowl. Over 2000 test matches have been played till date.

There are nine test playing nations which are full members of International Cricket Council – The International Cricket Governing body. These members are Australia, Bangladesh, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and West Indies.

One Day International

Limited over cricket was introduced in England in the year 1963. Internationally, the first limited over game was played in the year 1971. One game is played in one day. A bowler can bowl a maximum of 10 over’s in a game. In 1975, a new tournament known as World cup came into existence. All International Cricket Council members gathered at one place for a series of matches against each other. The winners of tournament were termed as World Champions.

World cup is played after every four years. ICC has conducted 10 world cups till date. Australia became champions four times, West Indies and India twice while Pakistan and Sri Lanka once. The last world cup was held in the year 2011 and was won by India.


The latest evolution in the game of cricket is twenty-twenty. Here, each team plays 20 overs and a bowler can bowl a maximum of four overs. First international Twenty-twenty game was played in the year 2005 between Australia and New Zealand. First twenty-twenty world cup was held in 2007. The tournament is played every two years and twenty-twenty world champions are crowned. 20 international teams have played the game till date.

Even after 100 years of its existence, the popularity of game is still increasing. More and more people are taking up this sport. It is only second to Football in terms of followers around the globe and is set to post a challenge for the top slot very soon.

Source by Uphaar Dhunna