Do You Know The Benefits Of Kefir?

As a person who understands the benefits the Hay Diet has on the digestive system I found it difficult to ignore the apparent amazing effects which kefir has to offer.

It is clear that commercial kefir does not come close to the benefits the home-made variety has to offer as commercial Kefir is made from either a freeze dried powdered form of the culture which means it has considerably less healing power.

On the other hand homemade kefir contains billions of friendly organisms per millilitre, and the organisms are reproducing right up until the kefir is consumed along with ample amounts of kefiran and variations of the polysaccharide.

Kefir benefits from an abundance of tryptophan which is one of the essential amino acids and is, well-known for its relaxing effect on the nervous system. Therefore kefir has a particularly calming effect on the nerves. Rich in the B Vitamins: Kefir is an excellent source of Vitamin B7 (biotin), which aids the body’s absorption of other B vitamins, B1 (Thiamine), B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin), B6 (Pyridoxal phosphate), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (cobalamin).

As an experiement the bacteria E. Coli was injected into Kefir. Within 24 hours the E. Coli was destroyed by Kefir whey’s beneficial bacteria. Kefir has also demonstrated the ability to kill H. pylori infections when bacteria alone could not. In addition, the complex micro flora of Kefir has also shown a keen ability to greatly stimulate our immune system, ward off infections. This is because when Kefir is consumed as a drink, it creates a healthy mucous lining in the colon, which acts as a good medium to support the growth of beneficial bowel flora which helps to prevent parasitic infections and cancer as well as constipation. This means Kefir is beneficial in preventing many gastrointestinal disorders.

20 of the known health benefits of live Kefir

1. Strongest natural remedy against any allergy

2. Strongest natural antibiotic without side effects

3. Treats liver disease

4. Treats gallbladder, dissolves gall bladder stones

5. Clears the body of salts, heavy metals, radionuclides, and alcoholic products

6. Cleans the body of chemical antibiotics

7. Treats kidney stones

8. Good bacteria in kefir are able to fight off pathogenic microorganisms

9. Lowers level of LDL cholesterol

10. Cleans the gastrointestinal tract

12. Treats gastritis

13. Treats pancreatitis

14. Treats ulcers

15. Prevents and treats colon cancer

16. Improves digestion

17. Improves the body functions

18. Improves the human immune system

19. Cures Candida

20. Cures hypertension

Source by Philip P Edwards

Multinational Companies (MNCs) Defined

Many authorities, scholars, and authors have variously defined multinational companies from different perspectives. Some of these definitions are meticulously written below:

The Research Machines (2004) gives four definitions to MNCs. First, it defines MNC as a corporation that has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country, or that, which has offices and/or factories in different countries and usually has a centralized head office where they coordinate global management. Second, it defines MNCs as a business enterprise with manufacturing, sales, or service subsidiaries in one or more foreign countries, also known as Transitional or International Corporation (TNC or INC).

The third definition given by Research Machines is that which sees MNC as a company or enterprise operating in several countries, usually defined as one that has 25 percent or more of its output capacity located outside its country of origin. The last definition as given sees MNC as a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishment located in at least two countries.

All these definitions, as given by Research Machines (2004) identify that MNCs operate outside its own home country. Research Machine’s first definition point out to a crucial point that MNCs also acquire assets in these foreign countries where they operate and possibly own offices/factories to ease achievement of objectives. This means that they do prefer to make use of the available resources of the host country. Likewise, it added that MNCs do have a place; usually the global headquarters are also put in place. This means that reports on finances, sales, purchases, marketing, etc are properly coordinated and accounted for at the headquarters.

Research Machines’ second definition points to another vital point about MNC stating that their services is not limited to manufacturing alone but also includes selling and reminding services through sales and service subsidiaries. Research Machines’ third definition goes further to allocate percentage to MNCs output. It stated that for a corporation to be termed multinational, it should have gotten its output of 25 percent exported to other countries. What could be deduced from this is that a corporate may be operating outside its country of origin but cannot be referred to as MNC except it has disposed 25 percent or more of its output to outside countries.

The Encyclopedia of Management (2005) put multinational companies as businesses concern with operation in more than one country. These operations outside the company’s home country may be linked to the parent by merger, operated as subsidiaries or have considerate autonomy. According Drucker (1974), THE multinational company grew from the emergence of a genuine world market demand transcending national, cultural and ideological boundaries, due to the information explosion.

Iyayi, Agbonifoh and Ehiametalor (1984) see multinational companies as multi-management with several layers of management decision making bases from local to regional to global. In the words of Hodgetts and Luthans (1997), multinational companies are firms having operations in more than one country, international sales, and nationality mix of managers and owners. Coventry (1981) and Johansson (2000) give the same definition to MNCs, as companies that usually have a number of foreign production sites and thus a number of international markets.

Going by all these definitions highlighted above, it could be asserted that they all took a multinational company and defined it from structural, functional and geographical perspectives and from the point of scope covered geographically.

Source by Oluwanisola Seun

Stress Management Tips – Abraham-Hicks Teachings For Stress Relief

Stress can make us lose perspective. The teachings of Abraham-Hicks can help bring it back. Abraham, in case you don’t know, are (yes, plural!) a group of non-physical beings who share their wisdom with us by speaking through Esther Hicks. They have a lot to say about the need to feel good.

In fact, they said: “The most important thing is that you feel good.” I take that to mean that if you do, everything else will fall into place. Abraham also provide us with an entire collection of tools that help with that challenging task. If you’d like to learn more, you could buy one of their books. I especially love both Ask and It Is Given and Money and the Law of Attraction. Here are some of Abraham’s techniques:

a) Which thought feels better

In periods of stress or unhappiness, ask yourself: “Which thought feels better”? Always reach for the next better thought, they say. This isn’t too hard, especially once you have some practice. An example: I’m really stressed out about all those bills. Better: I’m grateful for the services that these people provided for me (including money-lending services in the case of credit cards).

Why not reach for the best-feeling thought from the start? Why not go all the way? Why not think “I’m so happy to be a debt-free millionaire!” Wouldn’t that be even more effective?

The answer is no — because it’s not possible. Have you ever noticed that when you feel in the dumps, you find cheerful people really annoying? There is a reason for that. If you feel miserable, you’ll have to go to a slightly better feeling first. Then one that feels a little better yet. And so on until you are where you want to be.

b) Positive Aspects: No matter how miserable you feel, you can always find SOMETHING positive about almost anything. Make a list.

c) What DO You Want? Instead of complaining about the things you don’t like about your life, focus on what you DO want.

Don’t whine about wanting but not having enough money. Focus on how to get more. Think about how nice it will be when you have more. According to Abraham, the Universe doesn’t understand “no.” So if you say “I don’t want to work so hard.” it hears “work so hard,” and gives you more of the hard work you so dislike.

Focus instead on the kind of job you WOULD like. Include some of the details. Reasonable hours, friendly coworkers, appreciative boss and customers, and excellent pay. And the universe will bring you more of those things.

Source by Elisabeth Kuhn

A Few Words On Energy

No one before or since Einstein advanced our understanding of this crazy little thing called energy-but it is the basis for everything. Every piece of matter that ever was and ever will be started as pure energy and came down in vibration to stabilize into a flowing, pulsing article of matter.

In a matrix beyond our understanding, we live in an ‘arrangement’ of energy and we draw to us and repel things as our existence evolves. Our thoughts direct the energy we attract as well as those we push away like opposite poles of a magnet.

Magnetic energy will be the basis for our next transportation system. It has to be. Fuel has ruined us. We mismanaged our natural fuel reserves and emergency measures will be taken to preserve humanity or they won’t but magnets provide a clean way to transport the lot of us for all that we choose to move about. And we are a moving community. Nomads and gypsies abound.

America has proven herself to be the unifying melting pot that should serve as an example to the world that people can live side-by-side in peace most of the time. Our recession, depression, concession to world order has pushed many past healthy limits. Our mental health situation is almost critical. People who have never experienced such ongoing stress are ‘cracking up.’ I’ve seen it over, and over, and over on this mountain. And we are only 1500 people.

I love energy-studying it, measuring it, trying to create more of it. The space-time continuum makes for excellent daydreaming. Ask Einstein. He pictured the theory of relativity long before he put it into words. He envisioned a man falling inside of an elevator which is also falling. The man inside the falling box is gravity-free which is a continuum of Isaac Newton’s idea of this added force or power holding us all on this whirling planet.

If the space-time continuum puzzles you, find a juggler and watched him until you get it. Keep watching. He has to calculate his movement like a chess game, always keeping everything in motion. The key to time travel will be found in this puzzle. Back to the Future was a fun movie but they were going the wrong way.

Universal pain has been created and exists within the atmosphere. Our creative types, the artists, will have to work like madmen to put a dent in diffusing it; bringing it down into measurable pieces to be dismantled. All that fear and angst did was cause a firestorm. Nothing was resolved through fear and it never will be.

For all her strengths, America’s greatest weakness has always been its ignorance on where to find wisdom. We looked to our mother countries and found nothing but ropes to the past. We looked to each other and we were weary from the journey. Finally, Padres came and began building the missions which are still preserved and revered as the gathering places of original religion in these United States. God was not here before we brought Him and these gathering places hold tremendous energies. Imagine all the prayers originated in these clay and mud structures.

The natives revered nature. We stripped nature. The natives lived in peace with the land. We strip-mined it and poisoned it until manifested as cancer when our systems couldn’t flush it out. Our filters have been assaulted for so long that we have desensitized an entire generation. The tribes trusted that the buffalo would always provide for them. We decimated them into extinction for $1000 per pelt. Fortunes were built while reservations were made…

Hitesh has some good ideas and theories. Far advanced for his years. Read his work for a young, fresh perspective on the world at hand. It will take a movement of universal scale to save our planet from ourselves be it slowly through pollution or quickly through Korean hands at this point.

Source by Sherry Lynn Daniel

Naturally Remove Your Tonsil Stones Without Surgery

Hi,

Welcome. Tonsil stones is a very common problem, so don’t feel alone. I once had tonsil stones and I hated every minute of it. I did not know what it was at first so i researched it. I visited the doctor, which prescribed me some antibiotics. They did not work, only thing they did was reduce the aching in the back of my throat. After medications the last option that doctors tell you is to have your tonsils surgically removed. NOT TRUE.

Well I am going to tell you why you should not get your tonsils removed, as they play a major role in your body system. Best of all why you no longer need surgery to get rid of those awful tonsil stones. I did not want to have surgery, never have before and I did not plan to start. I didn’t have money laying around to pay for surgery, I could not afford it. Yes there are loans, but too much of a headache.

So what did I do? I did what you probably are doing now and I researched my stones learn a lot on the subject. Long story short I am sitting here stones free and I did not need surgery and neither do you. You can do it naturally just like I did. First lets learn what your tonsils are and why they are so important to have, then what you can do to get rid of tonsil stones naturally and never have to deal with them again.

Your tonsils are like glands made of fleshy tissue that contains lymphocytes, what are lymphocytes? They are cells that battle infections, viruses, and any other uninvited intruders.

They are like the gatekeepers right in the back of your throat, one on each side like nets trapping bacteria and viruses that pass through your throat.

They are part of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is like your blood system, except instead of carrying blood it carries lymph fluid. This lymph fluid is like your blood, but it does not have any red blood cells like your blood does. Red blood cells are too big to be able to get through the walls of the capillaries. The rest of the components in your blood however, like vitamins, minerals, and nutrients are able to get by.

This is how your cells absorb vitamins, minerals, nutrients and everything else they need. Once the cells get what they need, they dump toxins, garbage and everything that they dont need into the lymph fluid.

When all the unwanted garbage is in the lymph fluid the white blood cells in the lymph fluid attack and neutralize bacteria, viruses and the other foreign unwanted cells.

The lymph fluid delivered the nutrients and has to dispose of all the garbage. Where does it go now? It goes through the lymphatic system. There are lymph nodes, all over the lymphatic system which are like filters full of millions of white blood cells that clean the lymph fluid of any unwanted debris. Your tonsils are lymph nodes. This way when the lymph fluid has to go back to your blood, it doesn’t carry all the viruses and bacteria and make you sick.

When you get sick you might feel pain or get a sore throat. This is because your tonsils or lymph nodes swell and rise in temperature to fight off bacteria and viruses faster.

Your tonsils are super important lymph nodes!

They filter a lot of lymph fluid every day. Any unwanted cell, bacteria, or viruses, who try to enter the body through the mouth, nose, eyes, or ears, will end up getting killed by the tonsils. Only if your tonsils are functioning as they should.

Bacteria can get to other parts in the body if the lymph nodes are weak. This is how cancer and other severe illnesses are spread, through the use of the lymph system!

Those who doesn’t get killed by the white blood cells in the lymph fluid will for sure get terminated when they enter the tonsils. The tonsils are the last watchers at the gate to the rest of your body. If any bacteria would get past here, disease and illness would spread to other areas of your body. This can happen if you have weak or no tonsils at all.

So what does this tell you? Its a terribly idea to remove your tonsils! Who will protect you from all the viruses and diseases? If you have been diagnosed with tonsil stones you don’t need to get them surgically removed to cure your tonsil stones. There are other ways to permanently cure them. Natural ways. Now to learn of the many natural ways to get rid of your tonsil stones,

First of lets understand our enemy by learning what these stones are. Your tonsils are filled with tiny small openings. Your tonsils swell up and become infected. This means that they are on high alert and are fighting bacteria and viruses. They may also be covered with white goo. This is the byproduct of dead cells, mucous, bacteria, and viruses that get deposited in these openings. They all get accumulated in all different spots in your tonsils. When all this trapped debris hardens and calcifies, is when you have tonsillitis or tonsil stones.

They are yellowish, white and look like stones. True to their name, these formations are not only physically hard, but they are also composed of minerals like phosphorous, calcium, and magnesium. In worst cases they are composed of ammonia residue and even carbonate material. Although these tonsil stones are not dangerous to human life, they can still cause major discomfort, especially if the tonsil stones become too big.

You will get ear and headaches all the time. Even though tonsil stones are nowhere near the ears, you will feel pain in your ears because there are shared nerve pathways.

It will be difficult to swallow food and drinks because your tonsils will be swollen. Always have sore throats from either the stone itself or the infection.

Worst of all tonsil stones smell awful so they will give you bad breath. One of the prime indicators of a tonsil stones that accompanies a tonsil infection. From the presence of the awful smelling compounds I mentioned earlier. Researchers found that 75% of people who had abnormally high concentrations of these compounds also had tonsil stones. Other researchers have suggested that tonsil stones be considered in situations when the cause of bad breath is in question.

Some of them can be visible in the back of your throat as a white solid stone. In other cases they are hidden behind the tonsils and only viewable through different scanning techniques.

How to get rid of stones naturally?

There is a combination of natural ways that you can adopt to your lifestyle to help you get rid of tonsil stones forever without the need of surgery. You need to learn what foods that you currently eat are helping promote the growth of your stones. What foods you need to start eating that help fight the growth of stones. You need to learn how to identify the problem ingredients in your food that are making your tonsil stones worse.

One way to try and get rid of your tonsil stones temporary is to get

1. 1. Cup of water

2. 2. Salt

3. 3. Aromatherapy elements

Aromatherapy elements are sea salts. These are specially blended with a unique combination of ingredients that can help in a myriad of ways. These sea salts that are rich in minerals and nutrients, epsom salt soothes sore muscles, sodium bicarbonate relieves itching, and honey powder as a moisturizer and bacteria inhibiters. Mixed all together, start gargling for as much as you can. This will help you relax your throat and help dislodge the stones.

Some people also wipe them out with a tooth brush or finger. But this method can be painful and unclean. A more effective way is to use a Q-tip or water pick. You can clean the tonsil stones after dipping cotton into the water and carefully wipe out its crypts. Water pick can also be used to rinse food jammed in your tonsils and teeth. I do not recommend this, I am simply giving you the options. There are painless ways you will learn. You dont want to be doing this =

You can also gargle with a liquid mouth wash Alkalol; which is a combination of salt and various natural scented extracts that will help clean out your tonsil stones.

Sprays and nasal drops have also made it easier to get rid of tonsil stones. These sprays help avoiding the painful sensation caused by the presence of tonsil stones. Nasal drops on the other hand are known to be a good option to treat tonsils as it is made up of post nasal drips. Such drops are also very effective in preventing the formation of future tonsil stones.

Make it your routine to use oxygenating mouth wash and toothpaste. They help kill the bacteria in the back of your tongue. You can get it from any medical store. Make sure to read the instructions carefully as you don’t need water or cleaning of tongue before brushing.

Try to brush your teeth after every meal

Something I really believe is real important is changes in your diet. Avoid using caffeine, sugar and sticky oily stuff as they can worse your tonsils. Reduce the amount of dairy intake and start drinking as much water as you can. Water can help clean out tonsil stones present at the back of your throat.

Tonsil stones are calcium deposits in your tonsilar cavity, so limit your intake of dairy foods.

Do not eat immediately before going to bed as food particles left in your mouth may get deposited in your tonsilar cavity.

Chewing on garlic cloves at night, before you go to sleep also helps in eliminating the stones and prevents them from coming back. This is because garlic is a natural antibiotic and has natural healing properties.

If you are able to dislodge your tonsil stones then maybe you should read on and learn to prevent them from coming back. You can find these diet plans online and can download them easily so that you can work on the prevention of your tonsil stones rather than the treatment. There are lots of dietary tips that I found that you can use to remove your stones and by eating specific foods you will be able to reduce the size of the stones and get rid of them altogether. You need to learn what foods help prevent tonsil stones and what foods provoke it. You tonsil stones may be the warning sign of another serious health condition so you need to act now. By doing the following you will learn to fix this condition and get rid of your tonsil stones at the same time. You need to focus on the root cause of tonsil stones – not the symptoms.

Source by J Uribe

The Best Branding Strategy – Make a Real Connection

What is it that makes some brands connect so well with their audiences? We could learn something about building brands for organizations by also asking, What is it that makes some people connect so well with other people? In many ways, organizations are like individuals. Each has its own specific “fingerprint” — strengths, character, and personality — that makes it unique and recognizable. It’s how we get to know our friends and understand what it is about them that we like. In a world where no one has time to carefully weigh all available brand options, this fingerprint acts as shorthand to help us sort through the maze, a very real point of value at a time when it is increasingly difficult to tell one product or service from another. When an organization’s brand fingerprint is clearly defined and articulated so that customers, shareholders, distributors, employees, and partners consistently feel they “know” the organization and know what to expect from it, magic happens.

This is when high emotional engagement occurs. This is when “raving fans” and customer loyalty are created. This is when organizations gain sustainable competitive advantage. Discovering and communicating this brand fingerprint helps organizations bring strategic focus to the power of their brand — giving brands a meaningful and recognizable shorthand that helps cut through the noise and clutter to connect with people.

Brand fingerprint process

Following a process to help uncover the organization’s brand fingerprint will ensure that the intangible attributes assigned to the brand — assets like integrity and innovation — are translated into a visual, tangible representation to which audiences can relate. The process has two phases, strategy and visual translation. It works like this:

Phase I. Strategy

Step 1. Finding your brand values, character, and personality

Step 2. Understanding the competitive landscape

Step 3. Determining your position in the marketplace

Step 4. Developing your value proposition

Phase II. Visual Translation

Step 1. Developing the brand mood

Step 2. Determining the key brand elements

Step 3. Developing the brand roadmap

Phase I. Strategy

The strategy phase can be compared to traditional methods of brand development and is based on core values. The difference here is that the exercises used in the facilitated sessions with company decision makers are designed not only to uncover brand values and attributes, but to gather information in a way that it will be useful for development of the visual translation of the brand. Pairing the creative team with decision makers at the very beginning of brand strategy development is essential in gathering input that will be critical to visual translation.

This is important since experts say that 80% of what we learn comes to us visually, and customers will most likely see brands long before they understand the strategy. There are many benefits of considering how the brand will be communicated visually at the strategy stage. Some of these benefits include: – translation of intangible company assets and attributes into tangible representations that truly reflect the company’s core values – avoidance of possible disconnects when logos, websites, and print materials are developed – development of marketing materials that really communicate key messages – deeper understanding and long-term recall of brand messages by customer audiences – consistency of brand messages over time

Phase II: Visual Translation

The visual translation phase takes all of the information gathered in the strategy phase and translates it into a visual form that people can see and relate to — the visible brand fingerprint. A clear and accurate brand fingerprint can communicate assets like integrity, zero defects, and innovation and make them palpable. Visible. Understandable. Audiences will know at a glance “who” the organization is, what it is saying to them, and why they should buy, react, or be moved. And it will be real, it will be authentic, and it will stand the test of time — because what people see represents the synthesis of the brand strategy.

The benefits of developing the visual components of the brand directly from strategy exercises include:

– a brand mood that will communicate to customers on an emotional level, because the design is based on authentic aspects of the brand’s character and personality – because the mood is a direct translation of strategy jointly developed by company decision makers and creative team, there are no unpleasant surprises at the design stage – the main visual components of the brand will look and feel “real” and will become the pillars upon which other marketing materials will be built – there will be no need for new themes, visual approaches, or deviations from the established visual translation. Brand equity builds with consistency. This is a cost-effective benefit.

Brand communication

Being true to the organization’s authentic brand is how trust, loyalty, and sustainable relationships are developed between the organization and its audiences. Great graphics and cool animation aren’t effective if they don’t accurately communicate the company’s character or brand. Something’s amiss if the organization is not clear and consistent about how it is presenting itself in front of its publics. If the organization’s brand and its image are not aligned, “brand schizophrenia” occurs, which significantly affects the quality of the relationship and level of trust with valued audiences, including customers and employees. Both lose trust in companies when they don’t know what to expect. With brand strategy and visuals clearly articulated in a unique brand “fingerprint,” organizations can make a real connection with their audiences. Once established, this connection enables them to communicate compelling value, promote long-term recall of brand messages, and foster the trust, loyalty, and emotional attachment that sustain relationships.

Source by Marcia Hoeck

Dealing With Conflict in the Workplace

Introduction

Conflict is a major concern in both your personal and working life. If not dealt with quickly, tactfully and efficiently conflict could lead to serious confrontation and/or a complete breakdown of relationships. It could even lead to violent and dangerous situations.

A conflict could stem from a minor complaint that was not resolved and left to fester. This could then gradually grow into an insurmountable problem. A conflict can be as innocent as sibling rivalry – arguing over a toy – to a dispute with a customer or colleague over a product, service or procedure to a war between countries in extreme cases.

There will be times during the course of a working life where you will have to deal with complaints and conflicts. Your successful handling of these situations will have a direct bearing on you and your organisation’s reputation for customer service and its continued success.

What causes conflict.

Conflicts normally occur when people have different ideas and believe they have the superior view point. This is particularly true of conflict in the workplace – between colleagues and/or management. The issue becomes one of power, of gaining control or of ‘being proved right’. To resolve this type of conflict it is necessary to move from the power clash, to one of service and responsibility – to work for the good of the group rather than individuals within it. In resolving a conflict it should be more important to make sure that both parties needs are met rather than winning the argument.

Conflict can also be caused by a lack of communication or by a failure to recognise the needs of another person. Whatever the scenario, the main component in conflict is misunderstanding. These misunderstandings can occur due to differences in age, culture, race or religion. Conflict situations can include customer related issues, misunderstandings or communication barriers or Conflict among work colleagues.

Conflicts due to customer related issues.

A complaint, no matter how trivial it might sound to you, is legitimate in the eyes of the customer and must be taken seriously. Customers come into your organisation to do business. They have a need and they believe (or hope) that you will be able to fulfil that need. They are willing to pay you for your time, effort and service and they expect your full and undivided attention. If they do not receive this attention or a satisfactory product or service, then they are not receiving value for their money and then have every right to complain.

Conflicts arising out of customer related issues could include;

  • problems or faults with services or products. The customer has not received the quality of service or product that they expected and are unhappy enough about it to complain. A complaint of this nature can be fairly easily resolved if the parties involved are prepared to communicate and compromise.
  • delays or poor timing of product or service supply. The customer has been kept waiting longer than expected or advised for their product or service and, as in the point above, become upset at the delay. Delays can cause a great deal of inconvenience for customers, particularly if they have made time to be on hand and are then disappointed.
  • difficult or demanding customers. Some customers are hard to please and are, by nature, very demanding and aggressive. If they are not handled carefully they could, potentially, become threatening.
  • drug or alcohol related issues. These could include being refused entry or ejection from premises due to their condition and the risk they represent to other customers or staff.

Conflicts due to misunderstandings or communication barriers.

No two people are exactly alike – not even twins. People have different points of view brought about by the many influences on their lives.

These influences include;

genetics – the things that we inherit from our parents and over which we have no control. These things might involve the colour of our eyes and hair to our health.

upbringing – which involves the way in which our parents raised us and the values they instilled in us.

culture and religion – this influences the things that we believe to be true and the customs and traditions we follow

economics – our view on life can be strongly influenced by our economic situation, whether we are financially comfortable or struggling to make ends meet.

education – our level of education will also have a large impact on what we think and how we view the world.

the environment – this means the environment in which we operate: our neighbourhoods, housing situation, and the people we are surrounded by.

life experience – involves all the experiences we have had in our lives, the successes and failures, the lessons we have learned from these experiences and the many roles that we have played to date.

All of these things and more go in to making us the individuals we are and our thoughts and feelings about almost everything we come into contact with will be shaped by these influences. So we have our own opinions and points of view on a whole range of things and these sometimes clash with other peoples. These clashes can take the form of a lively but friendly debate but they could just as easily become heated and aggravated and degenerate into shouting matches. The beginnings of conflict.

We can avoid these situations by reaching an understanding between the parties. This can be done by communicating openly and honestly, being willing to listen to the other person’s point of view – remembering that the influences that have shaped their beliefs and view points could be very different to yours – but no less valid.

Misunderstandings and communication barriers could occur because;

  • people do not listen to each other with an eye to reaching an understanding
  • people are not prepared to compromise in order to resolve the situation
  • people do not understand cultural differences and are not prepared to make allowances for them.

To resolve a conflict situation steps need to be taken to bring the two points of view closer – to reach a compromise that both parties can accept. Part of good conflict resolution skills is the art of communication and recognising the barriers to a good two way communications flow. These barriers can include;

  • Not paying attention. Customers or colleagues who are trying to communicate with you will feel ignored and frustrated if you allow yourself to become distracted. Not paying attention to them is rude and unprofessional and stops the communication flow. The result of this could be the loss of a customer, a complaint about you to your manager or a loss of respect. Do not allow yourself to be distracted – focus your attention on what is being said and really listen to your customer or colleague. If you must interrupt the conversation to answer the phone, or speak with another staff member, excuse yourself.
  • Not looking at a person. Maintaining reasonable eye contact with the person you are communicating with is very important. It shows you are paying attention and that you are interested. By not looking at the person who is talking to you, you are indicating not only disinterest, but are also making them feel uncomfortable. They may think you are not being honest or trustworthy – you may be trying to hide something from them.
  • Interrupting. Interrupting someone when they are talking is a major barrier to open, two way communication and could easily cause conflict. Once again, you are indicating that you are not interested in what they have to say. Breaking into what they are saying to make your own thoughts known, or worse, to finish their sentences for them is no way to gain a proper understanding of the other persons needs and expectations. Allow them to finish what they are saying and pay attention. If, for some reason, the conversation needs to be wound up, then take control by asking leading or closing questions – that allow for short answers only.
  • Tone of voice. The tone of voice used during a conversation could also start a conflict. Arrogance, demand, anger, whining, disinterest etc all add a tone to the voice that can cause people to react negatively. When dealing with customers or colleagues you should keep your tone friendly, calm and pleasant. At the very least, if you do feel annoyed you should try and keep the tone of your voice neutral.
  • Sarcasm. Sarcasm has no place in any conversation between two people and is an open invitation for conflict. There are times, in everyone’s working life, when you think “If I get asked one more stupid question, I’ll go mad!”, but sarcasm in the face of a silly question or remark does nothing but hurt the other person and, possibly, dent their self esteem. We often forget that not everyone knows everything we do about our industry – in fact most customers know very little about the tourism and hospitality industries. We can forgive our customers or junior colleagues, therefore, for asking questions that may have obvious answers – obvious only to someone who knows. Show patience and understanding – it’s just as easy and much more pleasant than giving a sarcastic or snide answer.
  • Rudeness. There is never any excuse for rudeness. A respectful and courteous attitude on your part should avoid or defuse any antagonism a person brings with them into your office. Should you find yourself never the less, dealing with a person with whom you simply cannot get along – rudeness is not the solution. Speak to your supervisor or manager and ask for their advice.
  • Cultural differences. Cultural differences can be the source of a great many conflicts. When dealing with people from other countries, other beliefs and so on, it is easy to misunderstand words, gestures and customs. If you want to excel at your profession it is a good idea to familiarise yourself with some of the more prevalent customs of other cultures. On the whole, however, people from all over the world, from all walks of life and from all creeds respond well to respectful and courteous behaviour. Do not make fun of customs you don’t understand. Treat everyone you deal with, both customers and colleagues, with respect and you should do very well.

Any one of these points could provoke a customer or a colleague into complaining – which could then, potentially, turn into a conflict. It is a good idea therefore, to remain courteous and polite when dealing with other people.

Signs of potential conflict

A conflict does not happen suddenly. People do not go from calm and cool one moment to angry and aggressive the next.

Conflict builds. It may take hours, weeks or even years. However long the process takes, there are always signs that a conflict is building. If these signs are recognised early then steps can be taken to quickly and efficiently resolve the situation before it becomes a major issue.

Early signs of conflict can include (but are not limited to):

  • aggressive body language: Narrowed eyes – trying to intimidate you Flared nostrils – a sure sign of building anger as the person takes a deep breath, either to control themselves or to go on the attack Stretched muscles in the face and jaw line – tightened in building anger and aggression Tapping fingers or feet – shows impatience
  • malicious or negative gossip among colleagues
  • difficulty in discussing an issue calmly and rationally
  • tone of voice – indicating boredom, sarcasm, irritation

These are all signs of irritation, dissatisfaction or impatience. If you recognise any of these signs when dealing with a complaint or a conflict you should endeavour to find out the reasons why the other person is starting to feel impatient or irritated. You can do this by asking relevant questions and listening carefully to their answers. In this way you can reach an understanding of the issue at hand and perhaps avoid escalating the situation.

If not recognised and acted upon these signs could then be followed by;

  • Raised voice – speaking rapidly in a loud, high pitched voice – or even shouting
  • Body leaning forward in an effort to intimidate
  • Hand gestures – finger poking and pointing in an aggressive manner.
  • Refusal to cooperate
  • Storming out of a room, slamming doors, drawers or implements

At this point you may already have a conflict and it will take careful handling to bring the situation back under control

Crisis situations

Complaints can escalate into conflict and conflict, if not resolved effectively, could potentially escalate into a crisis.

People wish to be taken seriously. If they are not, or are repeatedly ignored, can become aggressive and a threat to safety and security of the organisation and the people in it. Equally, people who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and are not in control of themselves, can present a danger to those around them if they are not handled carefully.

Situations where personal safety of customers or colleagues may be threatened and assistance required may involve:

  • drug or alcohol affected persons
  • people with guns or other weapons
  • situations where someone has been or may be hurt
  • people who appear to be violent or threatening
  • situations where customers refuse to leave or to be pacified.

In these cases it is extremely important to:

  • remain calm yourself and to try and calm the other person.
  • move them, discreetly, out of the main area of your office or shop
  • take note of details of the problem for future reference
  • DO NOT argue with a person who is visibly upset or aggressive as this will only compound the situation.
  • bring in the assistance of relevant management, security and/or authorities such as police as soon as possible.

Organisational requirements

You cannot simply make a conflict go away by giving the complaining party whatever they want. Resolving a conflict is a delicate balance between reaching an agreement between parties while at the same time staying within the constraints of your organisations requirements and policies.

These constraints may include:

Costs issues. Often, a conflict with a customer will be centred around dissatisfaction with a product or service. If the product or service was actually found to be faulty then the simplest solution to the problem is a straight forward replacement. Sometimes, however, the situation is not as simple and the customer will demand further compensation. In these cases a replacement may not be enough and something extra may need to be done. When determining the extent of compensation, if any, to be offered to the client, there are a few issues to consider. These could include;

  • Customer good will & repeat business. If your organisation is dependent on customers coming back again then this is an important consideration.
  • Organisations reputation. A dissatisfied customer will tell many people that they received bad service from an organisation who did not meet their needs and this can lead to a loss of business.
  • Direct cost. Compensation to a client can be in the form of cash, additional products or services, or an upgrade to the product or service they have purchased. If compensation is to be of a monetary nature then the cost to the organisation must be considered.

Organisation policy on refunds or exchange. Most organisations will have policies on giving refunds. Some companies will give money back, others will give credit for products or services they provide. In the tourism industry you must also consider the refund policies of the principals you deal with. For example some advance purchase airline tickets do not allow refunds at all within a given period prior to departure and if the customer does not use the ticket, they have lost their money.

So before agreeing to provide a solution to the customer, you must first determine if it is financially viable to do so and to take the organisations policies and procedures into account.

Resolving conflict situations

When a person has purchased a product or service from your organisation and it is not what they expected it to be, or does not perform properly they will feel dissatisfied and disappointed. As a consequence when this person complains they generally believe that they have a legitimate reason for doing so and they may do so long and heatedly to the first person they come across in your organisation. This might be you – even though you had nothing to do with the original sale and have never met the customer. The worst thing you can do is tell them its not your problem.

Take ownership of the issue, regardless of whether you were involved in the problem or not. “Passing the buck” at this point is not going to help matters. The customer approached YOU, so deal with the issue and don’t pass them off saying “It’s not my problem” or “The lady who handled this is not here now….”. At that particular moment in time the customer does not see you, the individual, they see you, the representative of the company, so it is you, the representative of the company, they expect to help them.

If you were not part of the original transaction where the problem occurred get as much information as you can from the customer to help you determine what to do. For example, you could ask;

  • exactly what the problem is
  • when & where it occurred
  • how long ago the problem occurred
  • what they paid for the product or service
  • how they see the situation being resolved – this will give you an idea of the person’s expectations and how they impact on the organisation’s policies and procedures.

If the person who was involved in the original transaction is available you should ask them to join the discussion in order to get both sides of the picture. It is very important, however, to keep to the issue at hand and not to let emotions or ego get in the way of finding a solution to the problem; stay calm, listen to all points of view with an open mind and try to keep the communications process flowing in a positive manner.

Finding a solution to a conflict involves a certain set of skills and techniques. It takes a step by step approach to ensure a positive outcome for all parties concerned.

Steps in resolving conflict

Finding a solution to a conflict will often become a matter of “give and take” where one party makes a suggestion that may not be entirely acceptable to the other. When this happens you will need to define the issues as seen by all parties and negotiate a mutually acceptable outcome. This would normally happen in a logical sequence:

  1. Define the problem
  2. Work out what you want out of the conflict
  3. Brainstorm for options
  4. Evaluate solutions
  5. Decide on solutions

Define the problem

Everyone involved in the conflict needs to agree on a definition of the problem before it can be solved. This could mean describing the problem in terms of each persons needs and understanding of the issue at hand. Questions to consider might include:

  • What is the problem? Is it only my problem? Who else is involved?
  • Can I solve it? Is it worth solving?
  • Is this the real problem or merely a symptom of a larger one?
  • Does it need an immediate solution or can it wait? Is it likely to go away by itself? Can I risk ignoring it?
  • Does the problem have ethical dimensions?
  • What conditions must the solution satisfy?
  • Will the solution affect something that must remain unchanged?
  • Will I need help?

Asking these types of questions will outline what all the issues are from various perspectives giving you a firm foundation for exploring options. Depending on the nature of the problem and what it will take to resolve it, it might in extreme cases even be worth letting the matter go. It is important to keep a customer satisfied, but not at all costs. If a customer is being completely unreasonable and demanding then sometimes it is the better option to lose that customer.

Work out what you want out of the conflict

You also need to develop a clear understanding of the expected outcome. This could be; an agreement on acceptable compensation for faulty products or service a better relationship with the other party a mutually acceptable solution to an ongoing work issue the other person to respect your opinion With firm expectations of what would be an acceptable outcome in mind, you can then begin to negotiate with the other party until an agreement has been reached.

Brainstorm for options – When all parties concerned have had the opportunity to explain their feelings on the matter, then all of the issues should be out in the open. At this point you can look at the various options available. There might be a number of solutions to the problem which could work for everyone involved. Don’t get stuck on one solution just because it’s the first one you find. Be creative about the possibilities available to you, and look for common ground. You can decide from the options later.

Evaluate solutions – In deciding the best result from the options available you should weigh up the pros and cons of each one based on the organisations policies and procedures, cost or budgetary constraints, legal ramifications and mutual benefit. When discussing and evaluating options it is often the case that each party will prefer an option that most closely gives them what they want regardless of its impact on the other party. In these cases you need to negotiate and compromise so that an agreement that both parties are satisfied with can be reached.

The Art of Compromise – Compromise does not mean giving in or losing. It means looking for ways to meet each others needs by making concessions to the other party involved. Compromise involves negotiating what you are, or are not, prepared to do in order to get what you want.

You should be open to good arguments rather than pressure or manipulation from the other party. Be open to reason but closed to threats. In difficult conflicts it might be necessary to bring in another person to mediate. This person might need to be skilled, mutually respected, and not have a personal interest in the outcome.

Decide on a mutually acceptable solution – When all available options have been tabled and considered then you can decide on the best one – the one that keeps both parties happy! Make sure each person takes responsibility for agreeing with the decision. This may take the form of a written agreement or contract, or a letter outlining what was agreed to.

Separate your feelings from the problem. When your emotions get tangled up in the pros and cons of an argument you can’t reach the best conclusion. If you take a strong position because of the way you feel, you can’t work out the best solution to the problem because your perception of it is controlled by things which are likely to have nothing to do with the problem. It’s not about who is right or wrong. Arguing over whose fault it is or placing blame will do nothing but increase tension and get in the way of resolving the situation. You should not let your feelings get in the way. Points that can help here include:

  • Act and speak calmly. Arguing with a customer or colleague could result in a full blown confrontation. Pause before making a response to them. This will give you time to collect yourself, to calm any irritation you might feel and also gives you a chance to work out how to phrase your response in the most appropriate way.
  • Try to put yourself in the other person’s place; empathise with them. Use expressions such as “I can understand why you would feel that way” and encourage them to share their point of view.
  • Listen carefully and completely to what they are saying. Hear them out without interrupting them. Show you are interested through a positive listening attitude and ask clarifying questions to make sure you have understood them correctly.
  • Be patient and understanding. Don’t interrupt them. Once they have had their say, they will generally be a lot calmer and easier to reason with. The problem can then often be resolved in a civilised manner.
  • At the appropriate time, acknowledge their point of view and ask them to give you the courtesy of now listening to your (organisation’s) position. For example; “I understand what you are saying, may I now explain our position to you, and then we can see how we could solve the problem together?”

Documentation

Recording accurate information about complaints, conflicts and their outcomes is a very important part of any business. This type of information will show (among other things);

  • areas of the business that are not working properly
  • processes and procedures that need to be changed.
  • things that customer like / or don’t like about your products or services
  • gaps in the supply and demand of your products or services

With this information in hand, an organisation can then use it to continually improve its products, services, image and reputation.

Information can be recorded by way of (but not limited to):

  • Letters (or emails)of complaint. These should always be taken seriously. A written complaint should be answered immediately – even if it is simply to advise the customer what will happen next. An investigation of the complaint should follow and the customer should then be advised of the outcome. A report of the complaint and the outcome should then be sent to the relevant supervisor or manager for any further action needed.
  • Notes taken during a phone call or after a face to face meeting. Once again, it is good business practice to record the details of complaints or discussions about conflicts. These notes can be used for the organisation’s continuous improvement programme but they can also be used as reminders of the conversation should a dispute arise.
  • Formal documentation. These could be; Refund forms Credit notes Contracts or agreement forms

Evaluating conflict situations

It is good business practice to continually look for ways in which an organisation can improve its practices and procedures. One of the main ways an organisation can do this is by seeking feedback – comments from customers, staff and other visitors to the organisation. Reasons for seeking feedback can include;

  • to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business
  • to maintain its reputation
  • to learn from errors or mistakes
  • to make improvements to the service or product delivery or quality to improve productivity and efficiency
  • follow up to see if customer is satisfied in the case of a complaint or conflict

In a matter as important as a complaint or a conflict, feedback can also be sought by way of a phone call, letter or perhaps even a personal visit the person concerned to ensure that any issue that existed between the conflicting parties has been successfully resolved.

When looking for how effective the solution to a conflict was, some of the questions that should be asked could include:

Why did this situation happen in the first place? A close examination of the circumstances surrounding the matter of conflict from both the customers and the organisations perspective can show up problems in procedure, policy or product or service delivery. Issues to look at could include;

  • Was there a breakdown in communication?
  • Is the service delivery as good as it could be?
  • Are the organisation’s policies and procedures as effective as they could be?
  • Was the service/product faulty in some way?

Did we resolve it effectively? This is a very important question from the customers and the organisations point of view.

  • For the customer, resolving the problem effectively could mean that they are satisfied, that they have received value for their money and most importantly that they will probably continue to do business with you.
  • For the organisation, resolving the problem effectively could mean that they have retained a customer and kept within organisational guidelines and budgets

When looking at how the problem was resolved:

  • Ask critical questions about the outcome – was it the best possible option for every one concerned? Did it cost your organisation money? Too much money? Was the outcome worth the cost?
  • Evaluate the customer’s reaction to your proposal – were they happy with it? Were they prepared to be reasonable? Will they continue to do business with you?
  • Compare the situation to any previous incidents of this nature. How was it handled last time? Is there a pattern emerging that should be addressed?
  • What can we do to prevent it happening in the future? By looking at how the problem occurred in the first place and how effectively you resolved it you can then take any necessary steps to prevent the same thing happening again. This might mean; A change in policy or procedure A change in a product or service Training staff in customer service skills Training staff in conflict and complaint handling

By asking these, and other relevant questions, you can make improvements to the organisation. This could lead to greater customer and staff satisfaction which will have a positive impact on the organisations continued success and prosperity.

For more information go to: www.lptraining.com.au

Source by Lee Perlitz

What Makes a Normal Distribution Normal?

Good question…

What makes 98.60 degrees normal?

What makes people normal?

Generally, references to a statistical distribution or just a “distribution” mean a “frequency distribution.” That is, what is the number of times or the frequency with which each value in the distribution occurs.

As it turns out, a large percent of all frequency distributions meet the same set of criteria. Such distributions are called “normal.” A more popular term is “bell curve.”

NOTE: “Bell” is not a technical term. However, because the term stuck, for convenience it is used in this series.

These normal types of distributions have many uses in market research and other statistical applications. A lot of statistical theory that applies to market research assumes normal distributions.

Examples of normal distributions in humans include: height; weight; test scores especially for standardized tests such as I.Q.; and various abilities, traits, tastes, and preferences. All assume a large number of people being “measured.” One notable exception is income earned, which will be discussed in the next article with distributions that are not normal.

Normal distributions also are common in both nature and business. For example, light bulb packages have information on the number of hours the bulb should last, the watts (energy used), and the lumens (light output).

Each of those numbers is an arithmetic mean of the frequency distribution generated by testing large numbers of light bulbs. Each of those distributions is bell-shaped or normal.

So what are the criteria for a distribution to be normal?

1) The distribution is unimodal (only one most frequently occurring value).

2) The arithmetic mean, the mode, and the median are all the same value. That value is the value representing the highest point on the distribution;

3) The distribution is bi-laterally symmetrical.

BY WHAT?!

Bi-laterally symmetrical means the left half is a mirror image of the right half (unless you’re left-handed, then the right half is a mirror image of the left half).

4) One standard deviation–hereafter noted as 1ÏOE –measured each way from the arithmetic mean (what’s referred to as plus or minus one standard deviation or ± 1ÏOE) represents slightly over 68 percent of all the values in the distribution. ± 1.96 ÏOEs represents the middle 95 percent of the values. You can go to readily available tables to see how many standard deviations from the mean are associated with what percent of all the values in the distribution. This percent is often referred to as the “area under the curve.” For instance, ± 1ÏOE covers slightly over 68 percent of the area under the curve. The curve is the graphic representation of the frequency distribution.

and

5) There are some other criteria, but the above ones are the main ones (at least for now).

Normal distributions come in various sizes and shapes but all meet the criteria noted above. Some normal distributions look like they are relatively short and spread out; other normal distributions look relatively tall and thin. The largest percent of all normal distributions are in between those more extreme shapes and are the true bell curves.

In market research, you might want to ask consumers how they would rate the service they received. A properly designed survey would gives choices such as “excellent” “good” “fair” “poor” “very poor.” A future article will deal with the problems of such surveys. The point here is that the choices have to be symmetrical in terms of balancing the choices around the middle of the distribution. The results should produce a normal distribution. If the results are not “normally distributed” you should be suspicious of the results. Contrary to what many are led to think, not everything is good or excellent.

Source by James Stotter

Commodity Trading – Advantages and Disadvantages

What Is Commodity Trading?

Commodity futures markets allow commercial producers and commercial consumers to offset the risk of adverse future price movements in the commodities that they are selling or buying.

In order to work a futures contract must be standardised. They must have a standard size and grade, expire on a certain date and have a preset tick size. For example, corn futures trading at the Chicago Board of Trade are for 5000 bushels with a minimum tick size of 1/4cent/bushel ($12.50/contract).

A farmer may have a field of corn and in order to hedge against the possibility of corn prices dropping before the harvest he might sell corn futures. He has locked in the current price, if corn prices fall he makes a profit from the futures contracts to offset the loss on the actual corn. On the other hand, a consumer such as Kellogg may buy corn futures in order to protect against a rise in the cost of corn.

In order to facilitate a liquid market so that producers and consumers can freely buy and sell contracts , exchanges encourage speculators. The speculators objective is to make a profit from taking on the risk of price fluctuation that the commercial users do not want. The rewards for speculators can be very large precisely because there is a substantial risk of loss.

Advantages of commodity trading

Leverage. Commodity futures operate on margin, meaning that to take a position only a fraction of the total value needs to be available in cash in the trading account.

Commission Costs. It is a lot cheaper to buy/sell one futures contract than to buy/sell the underlying instrument. For example, one full size S&P500 contract is currently worth in excess off $250,000 and could be bought/sold for as little as $20. The expense of buying/selling $250,000 could be $2,500+.

Liquidity. The involvement of speculators means that futures contracts are reasonably liquid. However, how liquid depends on the actual contract being traded. Electronically traded contracts, such as the e-mini’s tend to be the most liquid whereas the pit traded commodities like corn, orange juice etc are not so readily available to the retail trader and are more expensive to trade in terms of commission and spread.

Ability to go short. Futures contracts can be sold as easily as they are bought enabling a speculator to profit from falling markets as well as rising ones. There is no ‘uptick rule’ for example like there is with stocks.

No ‘Time Decay’. Options suffer from time decay because the closer they come to expiry the less time there is for the option to come into the money. Commodity futures do not suffer from this as they are not anticipating a particular strike price at expiry.

Disadvantages of commodity trading

Leverage. Can be a double edged sword. Low margin requirements can encourage poor money management, leading to excessive risk taking. Not only are profits enhanced but so are losses!

Speed of trading. Traditionally commodities are pit traded and in order to trade a speculator would need to contact a broker by telephone to place the order who then transmits that order to the pit to be executed. Once the trade is filled the pit trader informs the broker who then then informs his client. This can take some take and the risk of slippage occurring can be high. Online futures trading can help to reduce this time by providing the client with a direct link to an electronic exchange.

You might find a truck of corn on your doorstep! Actually, most futures contracts are not deliverable and are cash settled at expiry. However some, like corn, are deliverable although you will get plenty of warning and opportunity to close out a position before the truck turns up.

Source by Tim Wreford

A Columnist’s Salary and His Job Description

Columnists, as a matter of fact, have quite a significant role in today’s modern world. Their job basically includes writing as well as editing columns in popular magazines and newspapers, or other media like web. The salary of a columnist is actually competitive because of the consistent demand and scope for them. Before I head over to describing the salary, I’d like to share the job description of a columnist, just so no reader has any misconception about the job of a columnist.

Job Description of a Columnist

The responsibility of a newspaper or magazine columnist is simply to provide factual, latest and interesting details to their readers. In short, that is all! There is a particular way or formula in which the columns are supposed to be written, so that it becomes less difficult for the readers to be able to completely understand what the writer is wishing to convey.

Columnists can decide to write on any topics like business, politics, sports, religion, etc., depending on their knowledge, interests, passions and experience. A columnist needs to try expressing his thoughts, opinions, and ideas in a very impartial way.

Columnists can get a lot of fame, attention and glory among the people if he continues doing good work for a long period of time. Also, he needs to be sure that he isn’t hurting anyone’s sentiments or prestige, through the content he writes. This becomes a difficult issue for some beginner columnists who are a little too open when it comes to writing. I’m not saying one shouldn’t be open – one should, but at the same time, they must remember to be open-minded and be able to look at situations from the perspective of other people, and should remember not to hurt any person or any number of persons’ emotions in any way.

Most columnists start a career in writing after getting a degree in fields like Mass Communication, Journalism or any similar field. There really aren’t any specific qualifications – it’s flexible. One condition that always needs to be fulfilled is the ability to write well. That is all that matters, in a nutshell.

Wages of a Columnist

The salaries of columnists greatly depends on the years of experience they have, the degrees or diplomas they hold, the command they have over the language they write in, their writing skills, location of job and the kind of employer they are working for. The truth is, in the beginning, columnists generally have a little low salary – Not much compared to other jobs like Engineering, and such. However, the good thing is: the salaries very well rise as the columnist gains experience and credibility. Salaries in big metropolitan cities are generally much higher compared to smaller ones. In fact, some big-named newspapers and magazines pay huge bucks to their columnists! Columnists usually earn a median salary of about $35,000 per year. Also, columnists involved in writing articles for popular newspapers make over $40,000 annually. But remember, it largely depends on factors like level of expertise. In the start, salaries may be low, but they’re sure to rise high as time passes. The curve doesn’t go down, only up, and up!

I hope this article has been of use to writing enthusiasts who are interested in writing for print media, and wish to establish a career in non-fiction writing. Honestly? If you like to write, go for it. This is the best job you’ll find! Don’t be worried about your skill. You may think you’re not good enough right now, but as you gain experience, you are sure to improve your skills by a great extent. It’s all about practice.

Source by Anish Girdhar