The Advantages and Disadvantages of David Cameron’s Big Society

When David Cameron became the 14th British Prime Minister since 1946, he entered number 10 Downing Street with two real problems- a government in debt, and an economy in decline. One solution has been a much publicized, and sometimes ridiculed concept of a “Big Society.” What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating a Big Society?

What is a Big Society?

Local state run services are transferred into the hands of community groups and organizations, who effectively take over the existing government run service. Funding is made through a new bank, partly financed by funds left in dormant and expired bank accounts. According to the architect of this plan- David Cameron- communities can take over running local transport routes, public libraries, schools and a whole range of other services.

Four Main Advantages of a Big Society?

1. Many citizens feel that some state run services are inefficient, and badly organized. Transferring these services to local groups and charities, could make them more democratic,

2. Technically people can form a community, and volunteer to run these services which could range from taking over a rural bus service to running a school.- creating independence within a community- instead of dependency on the state.

3. Charities are also “tax free,” which means all funding is excluded from state taxation, and any profits can in theory be funneled back into improving the service, based on the needs of the community.

4. The government may save billions, which could be used to pay back a wide range of creditors, and funnel excess funds into improving the services it still runs. The community win, because they get a chance to provide a service they want- without any governmental interference.

What are the Disadvantages of a Big Society?

1. One main disadvantage is that funding may depend on how wealthy the community is who take over the existing bus route or library, and how willing people are to volunteer to help run these services.

2. The UK has had no recent history of mass volunteerism, and many communities are actually a mixture of new arrivals, migrant workers and short-term residents. Accustomed to a welfare state, and needing to earn money in one of the World’s most expensive countries- many people may not have the time to volunteer.

3. Free market economies emphasize on self reliance, rather than community reliance. A paradox where volunteerism is needed to keep some services running, but at the same time these they could remain in competition with private business- who profit from running a similar service.

4. Some people believe the UK is a broken society. And in many instances the concept of community may not exist in the traditional sense. “Big Society” on a village level may work, but would it work in an inner-city housing estate?

Past Examples and Probable Solutions

Germany faced similar problems the UK faces between 2000 and 2007. The nation had accumulated debts through its generous social system, whilst its economy was stagnant, and over 35% of the population received some type of payment from the state. The German government had either to cut back or raise taxes.

A defacto form of “Big Society” materialized after sharp cuts in unemployment benefits, and an implementation of a means tested benefit system. The unemployed had to work for an extra 1 euro an hour, on community schemes which were often the former jobs of government employees.

Unemployed Germans “volunteered” to sweep their streets, and maintain dilapidated public buildings and parks for 20 hours a week in order to receive a decreased benefits.

Perhaps the German example could help communities and charities find the people to run the services they are encouraged to take over- from the ranks of the unemployed. This in turn could give people valuable work experience, and help them train for a suitable job.

However their is a flip-side to the German example- Many middle income Germans saved more and spent less, whilst the unemployed opted to work in a low paid job, rather than face remaining on benefits. The Government saved billions of euros, but still raised indirect taxes- and in 2008 took on more debt by bailing out failed German banks.

Another solution is to increase the retirement age, and whoever is unemployed and close to retirement, could assist in running these services, and In some cases train other volunteers- in return for the benefits they receive plus an extra stipend from the charity.

Big society has advantages and disadvantages. Much depends on how the public is encouraged to volunteer, and how these community organizations are initially financed. The big question is whether a society accustomed to a social safety net, could change, and embrace an idea which has already created a very cynical response.

Source by Mark W. Medley

Allergies And Sinus Support – Allergies Can Also Speed Up Your Heart Rate

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology reports that allergic disorders affect at least 50 million people in the US. Type 1 Allergies and symptoms include asthma, eczema, hay fever, headaches, swellings, fatigue, chills, sensitivity to light and loss of appetite. Type 2 Allergies could start in infancy or during childhood due to inherited tendencies and exposure to pollen, dust and environmental toxins, including all the chemicals we breathe and eat. It all starts with your immune system not handling whatever comes along!

Nature’s Way has the popular Sambucol Immune System, which is a combination of liquid Elderberry, Echinacea, zinc, vitamin C and propolis (comes from the bee – a natural antibiotic). Elderberry was used by the Gypsies in Europe to make their wine. Many of the severe allergy symptoms are triggered by one’s inhalation of certain functions of both T and B immune cells, important to all Cell-Mediated Immunity. Astra 8 Defense Builder by Health Concerns is a Chinese herbology formula, which has been designed as a response for what’s happening within. It contains ( Astragalus for throat and cough), Ganoderma (Reishi) Ginseng, Codonopsis (for breathing), Schizandra (for liver) and Licorice (anti-inflammatory calming Lungs, Spleen and Kidney). Our clever Immune System is designed to differentiate between healthy compounds and harmful substances.

However, when it encounters the bad guys, it changes into an Allergic reaction. Chinese medicine calls it a pattern of imbalance and stagnation. Planetary Formulas with Mullein Lung Complex, (formerly known as Breeze Free), is an ancient botanical support for the Lungs, stuffy breathing, and other such conditions. It is a combo of Chinese Herbs (non-stimulant). Uncomfortable and unpleasant as these symptoms are, bloating and mood swings, of which any food can be allergenic, Wheat, Milk, Eggs, Corn, Soy, Yeast, and Food Additives, are some of the culprits. Type 2 is usually triggered by foods and environmental factors including hyperactivity and memory loss. Natures Herbs has an Old Fashioned Remedy CL-7 Formula with respiratory support herbs including Mullein (glands), Slippery Elm Bark (stomach), Elecampane (cough) and Hyssop.

Type 1 allergies are most commonly caused by Histamines, best known for chemicals that cause the action of an enzyme on Mast Cells. Histamines are released by specialized cells, the Mast Cells which causes small Blood Cells to become more adaptable to fluid (no wonder we get bloated!). Results are Swellings, Hives, nasal congestion and Eye Tearing. Simufix Caps and Sinumist by Natural Care are 2 helpers that will soothe Dry Irritated Nasal Passages promoting a Healthy Immune Response for Sinus and Allergy Symptoms. They contain Oregano Extract 4 to 1, Nettle, Quercetin (which strengthens the walls of the Blood Vessels), Goldenseal (a natural Antibiotic) and Grapefruit Seed Extract (also a powerful Antibiotic). The Mist is to spray in your Nasal Passages. I introduced this to some Fireman, who had worked on the mountain fires is Southern California that year.

They had been completely overwhelmed by the disastrous smoke in their lungs and it also played havoc with their Sinuses. Dr. John W Tintera, MD. found that deficient function of the Adrenal Glands accounted for various kinds of Allergies. Cited in his book “The Adrenal Syndrome”, a deficiency of Adrenal response can account for many types of allergens that have their beginnings in Adrenal Gland Failures, part of your Endocrine Glands located near the Kidneys. Now Foods has Adrenal Support containing Cayenne, Ginseng (an adaptogenic herb), Astragalus, Gota Kola (Ayurvedic) and Licorice. Now Foods also has Air Defense with its Patented Extract of Paractin with Andrographis (excellent for the tummy and Immune), Elderberry, Echinacea, Astragalus and Olive Leaf (for immunity and infections). You can certainly combine this with Herb Pharm’s Adrenal Support Tonic Tincture. Throw in a little Proplis Drops from Herb Pharm for Allergies, Respiratory-Big Time Fighters.

Histamine also causes a contraction of the smooth muscles and walls of the Lungs, Blood Vessels and Intestinal Tract and Bladder, itchy, Painful Ear and Stuffed Up Nasal Congestion (no fun). Clear Products has Clear Sinus And Ear, formulated by Stash Oz, (Masters In Traditional Oriental Medicine). Go to my Web Site to read all about our seminar. It has no stimulants, reduces swellings, ear Pressure and Moisture with Magnolia Flower (Xin Yi Hua), Scutellaris (Huang Quin), Perilla Leaf (Zi Su Ye) and Angelica Root (Bai Zhi). Another TCM is DR. Shen’s Min Kan Wan for Dust, Pollen, and Animal Hair Allergens. Now for some Allergic Relief for those Peepers (eyes) subjected to all environmental toxins and chemicals. King Bio has Allergy/Red Eye Relief for Inflamed Watery Conjunctivitis and Swollen Shut Eyes with Granules stuck in the morning, when one awakes. Bioforce USA, the famous Dr. Vogel’s Homeopathic Formulas has options for Swollen Watery Eyes and Inflamed Sinuses with Congestion. Similar to the Old Remedy Mustard Plaster, Dr. Singhas Mustard Bath opens all your portals, especially soothing for Stuffed Up Head, and doing away with toxic accumulations.

Allergies can also speed up your Heart Rate. Using a watch with a second hand, count your heartbeats for 60 seconds to find your average pulse. This is the number of times your heart beats per minute. Take this Pulse Test to find out which food you could be Allergic to. Take your Pulse 5 minutes before eating, after you have finished eating, if your Pulse varies as much as 12 to 20 beats after, a suspected food may be the answer. To give your Digestive Tract more ammunition Food Science Of Vermont has the Mega-Probiotic Nd with FOS (what’s that? Fructo oligo saccharides-this promotes the good Bacteria from Veggies and helps break down Protein from undigested foods, another cause for Allergies). Another work in Progress for foods that are holding and causing dysfunction is the Planetary Formulas Three Spices Sinus Support. Hit this one with lots of Vitamin C. Now Foods has Pantothenic Acid which taken throughout the day could cater to those dreadful Sinus Headaches. You have to take enough, but it works! Or you might try .

More American Indian Herbs for clearing. Bio-Allers- Natra Bio Homeopathics has the year Round and Seasonal Relief Formulas. Great options for all ages, stimulating the body’s natural defenses and inherited resistance to Allergies. For Air Borne Allergies, Tree Pollen. Mold Yeast & Dust Dairy Allergies, Grain Allergies, Animal Hair & Dander, Pet Allergies can be taken on a continuous basis. In addition, it is also good for the relief from down or clothing containing Allergens from Sheep or Wool. Conventional Medicine answers disease with powerful drugs never getting to the roots.

Over the counter Anti-histamines create undesirable side effects and toxicity. It may be true sometime we need them for the short term. Heel has the Euphorbium Nasal Sinus Relief Spray for Viral, Bacterial Rhinitis. Natra-Bio has Cold And Sinus Spray. Some of the Herbal Teas can help. Health King with Head And Throat Soother (you can image what that does!) Longjiang River Teas has some unusual herbs in the teas, but good tasting. Handy Packs for travel-just in case Nelson Homeopatics has the Sinus Packs. Food additives include antibiotics, food colorings, sulfites, MSG. All these increase Allergic Response. Stress, excessive intake of processed refined foods and nutritional deficiencies all are contributors. Allergies are now showing up in children of all ages. Hebron Naturals USA has Kids Goodypops Berry Buddies with Echinacea and Vitamin C. Allergy Shots are not always the panacea. Finding the right program that works for you, whether it be Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Chinese Herbology, it still comes down to finding the Wellness Within.

Source by Suma G Nathan

Property Scout Training Manual

What exactly is a commercial property scout? Basically, this is a person who is on the look out for ‘promising’ real estate. The process looks like this:

1. You learn the techniques from the Property Scout Training Manual.

2. Then, you search through local ads and observe the real-estate developments in the neighborhood.

3. When you see something that looks like a business opportunity, you contact the investors.

4. They assess whether the real estate meets their criteria.

5. If it does, they make an offer to the owner.

6. If the owner agrees to the offer, the investors buy the property in question.

7. The same real estate is later on sold at a higher price.

8. The property scout gets the share of the profit.

There are several ways a property scout is paid. How you get paid, depends on the timing of the payment. You can get paid immediately after the investor group decides to make an offer and they mail the Letter of intend. If you do so, you get $300, regardless if the property is later bought or not. Or, you can decide to collect your money after the acquisition. In this case, you are going to receive $15.000 within 10 days of transaction. But if you are willing to wait till the property is bought and resold, you will get 3% of the total profit. The later option can prove to be the most profitable as the profits are often very high, but it is also the most risky. Maverick Group lets you decide how much and when you want to get paid based on your personal preferences.

There is no investment on your part (except for the initial sign-up fee that covers the cost of the Property Scout Training Manual). All you need to put in is some time and willingness to learn and observe.

Source by Andrea Logan

The Disadvantages of a Solar Energy Car

The popularity of solar vehicles is gaining significant ground lately, though gasoline-fueled cars still prevail in the automotive market. Solar cars are cars that are powered by solar energy. The cars feature solar panels on their upper surface. Photovoltaic cells power up the vehicle when connected to a 48-volt battery charger. Their role is to convert sunlight into electricity.

Solar vehicles are great when you want to protect the environment because they do not generate gas emissions. The invention of the solar car is what makes possible the renewable power in the car industry. It reduces pollution and it is a transportation method that many people would prefer.

Nevertheless, owning such a car will bring you both benefits and disadvantages. One such disadvantage would be the inferior speed. A solar car cannot benefit from the same power as a vehicle that runs on fossil fuels. This is because its electrical backup battery is powered by solar energy, which varies from one day to another. Therefore, solar cars can only be driven at a slower pace.

Another issue would be safety. Solar cars are usually very light, unlike big cars, whose frames consist of a lot of steel. In case of collisions, a car with a heavy steel body will absorb the impact, protecting the victims. This is something that cannot be said about solar vehicles, as they are limited in power and could not support a heavy steel frame, plus they depend on the solar cells placed all over their body. Due to their small size, they are considered to be dangerous in case an accident happens.

Just like solar panels made for houses, the panels that cover the upper surface of a solar car are designed to absorb the sunlight in order to generate heat. But this is not possible when the night falls or when the sky is covered with clouds. So, you might encounter problems when you want to drive in unfriendly weather conditions, as the car’s performance will be affected.

If you are planning to buy a solar car, then you have to think carefully about the way you will maintain it. The surface of such cars is covered in solar energy collectors; any sharp blow could damage them. Replacing these collectors could cost you a lot of money. Further expenses will appear if you need to change the rechargeable battery system of the car.

The decision of buying a solar car is not an easy one. One should weigh both advantages and disadvantages. However, solar cars make a great investment if you think at the long-term benefits. There will be no need to spend money with gasoline or other types of fuels.

Source by Alex A George

The ABC Trust Structure Would Have Worked for Cinderella

Trusts, as we know them, have been around for hundreds of years and started under English law before America existed. However, trusts have only become popular with the American middle class for a couple of decades. Traditional structures don’t always fit today’s families.

An ABC trust is a very traditional trust structure that is used when a married couple wants to make sure that the children of the marriage or a prior marriage cannot be disinherited following his/her death. For example, if Cinderella’s father had created an ABC trust, Cinderella would have been entitled to more rights and benefits of her father’s inheritance, and the cruel stepmother could not have disinherited her.

The ABC stands for the three trusts that come into being at the first death: one is called “A”, one is called “B” and one is called “C.” The A Trust represents the surviving spouse’s assets. The B trust represents the deceased spouse’s assets and will pass estate tax free at the time of the surviving spouse’s death. The C trust saves no taxes, but only exists for purposes of protecting the childrens’ future inheritance. The B and C Trusts cannot be rewritten to disinherit anyone after the first spouse dies. The surviving spouse can usually use the assets of all three trusts during his/her lifetime, but cannot lose the assets of the B and C trusts to creditors or remarriage events.

However, in families that are not concerned about children from prior marriages or a spouse who cannot be trusted to protect the family assets, the ABC trust structure can backfire in a couple of ways:

1) Inconvenience. Imagine you have just lost your spouse and you go to the attorney to find out what you should do about the trust. The attorney tells you that you must divide the assets into two parts, your spouse’s half and your half. You can do whatever you want with your half of the money, but you are limited to what you can do with your spouse’s money for the rest of your life. Additionally, you must now file tax returns for two or three trusts instead of just one. Finally, you must answer to your children about how you are investing and spending their future inheritance. They can sue you if you break the rules.

2) Capital Gains Tax. Upon the death of the Surviving Spouse, the “A” and “C” Trusts enjoy a full step-up in cost basis which means that no one has to pay capital gains tax on the increase in value of the assets when they are sold. The “B” Trust does not get this step-up, so it may be exposed to capital gains tax upon the sale of the assets.

3) Irrevocable. The “B” and “C” Trusts are irrevocable. That means they cannot be changed without consent of all beneficiaries and a court order. If circumstances change, this could feel restrictive.

So what is the alternative? More and more married couples are using a more flexible approach. It is called a Disclaimer Trust. Disclaimer Trusts allow the surviving spouse to choose whether or not it makes sense to fill up the “B” Trust to avoid estate tax at the second death rather than being forced to do so. If we make that decision today instead of at the time of the first death, we do not have all the information we need. We don’t know what the tax law will be or how much money we may have by then or even if we want to change the plan. This Disclaimer Trust requires the trustee to be responsible enough to make this important tax-driven decision within 9 months of the first spouse’s death. It is not a great structure if the surviving spouse has gambling addictions or can’t be trusted to handle money.

Source by Heather Tremain

Why Strategic Change Management is Important

When a corporation needs to reinvent itself, the change that needs to occur should be purposeful. Trying to decide how to change and what to change can be just as frustrating as the actual change. The process of strategic change management involves developing an innovative vision for where the company needs to be, and then developing and equally innovative path for achieving the goal. Sound like a lot of hype? Truly, it is not. No one wants to have change just for the sake of doing things differently. It needs to make sense with the direction the company is trying to move in. A reasonable pathway toward the goals needs to be determined and embarked upon by all the people in a company in a choreographed manner.

Take for instance a bakery that has had a steady decline in sales. The first step is to decide what caused the decline. As the employees brainstorm and decide that the customer base wants, more healthy choices in addition to the standard bakery fare the beginnings of a strategic change plan form. In order to provide healthier food choices many things have to occur. What foods will be offered must be decided. How will they be prepared, who will prepare them, what type of daily inventory needs to be kept, what types of packaging are needed and the list goes on and on. In order to manage all of the steps a well thought out plan must be developed. This is the basis of strategic change management.

The bakery employees will have to work as a group to determine a map for which items must be adjusted and at what stages in the process. They cannot order new packaging supplies before deciding what foods they will be selling. The plan needs to follow a logical order. It also needs to be flexible to account for changes along the way. Encouraging all the employees to participate ensures that all areas of the change are reviewed. One person cannot think of everything so everyone needs to share in the plan.

Strategic change management is not a difficult or foreign concept. It is just about putting a name to a natural organized process. Outcomes are usually better and the organization can withstand the changes better when they are purposeful and universally agreed upon. Even if the individual elements are not what everyone thinks is best as long as they are working together toward the common goal the successful implementation of change will occur.

Source by Eric Douglas

New Secrets For Making Your Penis Bigger and Thicker – Get a Longer and Fatter Penis Safely

Isn’t it remarkable that the new secrets for making your penis bigger and thicker can be used safely to get a longer and fatter penis without pills and supplements just by using your two hands? I was very depressed about the size of my own penis. All I could think about was how to increase my penis size by 3 inches safely and naturally. Well, I’m happy to tell you I found the secrets that really work! And, I’m ready to let you in on the same secrets!

Some men always do well, no matter what is happening around them. They make excellent money, drive the best cars, live in nice homes and dine in nice restaurants. They always seem to have fat money in their pockets and in their bank accounts. But, their manhood is not fat! The size of their penis is making them depressed and sad. They cannot satisfy their women as much as they satisfy them with their fat bank accounts. Everyday you read about rich celebrities asking for divorce for irreconcilable differences. Why?

However, if you are not happy with your relationships because of the size of your penis, do not ever think of surgery or penis enlargement pills and supplements. You can make your penis bigger and thicker from the comfort of your home. Thousands of hours have been spent studying how to naturally increase the size of the penis with remarkable results.

One of the most important secrets ever discovered for making the penis bigger and thicker is called jelqing. Jelqing, if done correctly will make the tissue in your penis to expand for size increase. This is the same method that some tribal women are using to grow their necks longer. Once you can expand the tissue of your penis, you will be able to increase the size of the Corpora Cavernosa, which are the two large chambers on top of your dick and it is here that blood is held when you achieve erection. Increasing the size of the Corpora Cavernosa using jelqing, means more blood into your penis and it follows you will get a thicker penis and longer erections over time naturally without the use of pills and supplements. Try it!

Penis stretching is another secret technique you can use to get a longer and fatter penis without spending a lot of money on enlargement devices and pills because you will be stretching the ligaments and tunic of your penis with your two hands. You can even gain 2 inches using this penis stretching technique if done consistently and correctly. Some men do not know how to do penis stretching the right way and later complain that it does not work. Spend some time to learn penis stretching the correct way and you will be pleased with the size of your penis within 10 weeks.

There are two major obstacles I have found that can prevent you from making your penis bigger and thicker. You can get a longer and fatter penis safely if you can deal successfully with fear and ignorance. Fear, in particular, will hold you back. It will cause you not to take action. Ignorance will cause you to doubt and make you feel frustrated when you take the wrong steps.

Source by Festus M Kofe

Max Weber’s Typology of Forms of Authority – Traditional, Rational-Legal, and Charismatic

In pre-modern and modern societies, there has been a hierarchy of command of which everyone must adhere to. In order for this system to operate, there must be someone in charge or otherwise known as authority. According to Weber, authority is power accepted as legitimate by those subjected to it. Weber outlines three forms of authority in modern societies: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal. These forms of authority are ideal pure types that are rarely “pure” in real life.

Rational-legal authority is belief in the legality of patterns of standard rules and the right of those elevated to authority under such rules to issue commands. Authority is held by legally established impersonal orders and extends to people only by virtue of offices they hold. The power of government officials is determined by the offices to which they are appointed or elected because of their individual qualifications. As long as individuals hold these offices, they have a certain amount of power, but once they leave office, their rational-legal authority is lost

There are various ways that rational-legal authority could develop. Systems of laws and regulation develop in many societies and there are many different principles of legality that could occur. With the development of a rational-legal system, there is likely to be a political system which becomes rationalized in a similar way. Associated with political systems are constitutions, written documents, and established offices, regularized modes of representation, regular elections and political procedures. These are developed in opposition to earlier systems such as monarchies or other traditional forms, where there are no well developed set of rules.

As political systems develop in a rational manner, authority takes on a legal form. Those who govern either have or appear to have a legitimate legal right to do so. Those who are subordinate within this system accept the legality of the rulers, believing in the right of those who have legitimate rights to exercise power. Those with the power then exercise power based on this right of legitimacy.

Rational-legal authority may be challenged by those who are subordinate but this challenge is unlikely to result in changes in the nature of the system very quickly. According to Weber, such power struggles could be based on ethnicity, nationalism, not classism, and are mostly political struggles.

Weber’s examination of legitimate authority led him to define an ideal-type bureaucracy. An ideal-type is a rationally and systematically constructed pure type of action, which can rarely taken place in reality and used as a measuring tool to determine the similarity between actual social institutions and defined ones. The ideal-type bureaucracy Weber developed incorporated hierarchy, impersonality, written rules of conduct, promotion based on achievement, specialized division of labor, and efficiency. Information flows up the chain of command and directives flow down, according to Weber’s model. Impersonal rules explicitly define duties, responsibilities, operating procedures, and rules of conduct.

Individual offices are highly specialized, and appointments are made one the basis of qualifications rather than ascribed status. Working together, these characteristics are designed to promote the collective goals of the organization. This ideal-type bureaucracy was intended to promote economic growth and prosperity. Many of its concepts are echoed in today’s capitalist and political systems.

Traditional authority is authority in which the legitimacy of the authority figure is based around custom. Legitimacy and power to control is handed down from the past and this power can be exercised in quite dictatorial ways. This is the type of authority in which the traditional rights of a powerful and dominant individual or group are accepted, or at least not challenged, by subordinate individuals. These could be religious, sacred, or spiritual forms, a well established and slowly changing culture, or tribal, family, or clan type structures.

The dominant individual could be a priest, clan leader, family head, or some other patriarchal figure, or dominant elite might govern. In many cases, traditional authority is supported by myths or connection to the sacred, social artifacts such as a cross or flag, and by structures and institutions which perpetuate this authority. Historically, traditional authority has been the most common form among governments. An example of this is the kings and queens in the English monarchy system, which must belong to certain families in order to obtain their positions.

Traditional authority often dominated pre-modern societies. It is based on the belief in the sanctity of tradition, of “the eternal yesterday.” Because of the shift in human motivation, it is often difficult for modern individuals to conceive of the hold that tradition had in pre-modern societies.

According to Weber, traditional authority is a means by which inequality is created and preserved. If no one challenges the authority of the traditional leader or group, the leader is likely to remain dominant. Also, for him, traditional authority blocks the development of rational-legal forms of authority, a viewpoint he was particularly partial to.

Charismatic authority exists when the control of others is based on an individual’s personal characteristics, such as extraordinary ethical, heroic, or religious virtuosity. Charismatic leaders are obeyed because people feel a strong emotional bond to them. Hitler, Gandhi, Napoleon, and Julius Caesar were all charismatic leaders. Whether such powers actually exist is irrelevant; the fact that followers believe that such powers exist is what is important.

Weber considers charisma to be a driving and creative force which surges through traditional authority and established rules. The sole basis of charismatic authority is the recognition or acceptance of the claims of the leader by the followers. Charismatic authority can be revolutionary in nature, challenging traditional authority and sometimes rational-legal. This type of authority could easily degenerate into traditional authority in which the power is exercised by those who surround the charismatic leader.

Charismatic authority is the antithesis of routine activities and represents the desire for disruption and change of the prevailing social order. It is a necessary part of the dialectic between the human need for structure and the equally human need for variation and innovation in society. Charismatic authority is different from rational or traditional authority in that it develops not from established orders or traditions, but rather from the special trust the charismatic leader induces in his followers, the peculiar powers he exhibits, and the unique qualities he possesses. According to Weber, it is difficult for charismatic leaders to maintain their authority because followers must continue to legitimize this authority. There is a need for the charismatic leader to constantly exhibit leadership performance to his followers to reinforce the legitimacy of his authority.

The basis of Weber’s distinction between power and authority is that power is the ability to impose one’s will on another, regardless of the other’s wishes, and despite any resistance he may offer. Power is therefore relational; it requires one person to dominate, and the other to submit. This assumes that one person will acquiesce, co-operate with or consent to the domination of the other, and this cannot be true of all relationships. The act of issuing a command does not presuppose obedience. Weber argues that an individual can exercise power in three ways: through direct physical power, by reward and punishment and by the influence of opinion. The exercise of power is more likely to be indirect and coercive: a combination of rewarding and punishing through the use of argument, debate and rhetoric.

Authority, by comparison, is a quality that enhances power, rather than being itself a form of power. The word “authority” comes from the verb “to authorize”; therefore an individual’s power must be authorized by the group in order for it to be legitimate. An individual is considered an authority because of his technical expertise, combined with his ability to communicate effectively with the group. The individual in authority is the one who is primary in the group, controlling certain aspects of what the other group members do and say, and perhaps even what and how they think.

Source by Kathy Henry

Essential Features Your Deep Fryer Must Contain

Deep fryer is an essential kitchen appliance especially for those who love frying and fast foods. However, no one is perfect in everything. It mostly occurs that many people feel it difficult to make right decisions at right time. And this is same in case of selection process of various household items. Many people are totally unaware in making right purchase of different items. So, if you are also going to purchase some kitchen accessories like deep fryer then here are some essential features that your item should contain. This article will help you a lot if you are interested in making a purchase of commercial deep fryer.

First of all I will recommend you that always try to prefer stainless steel items. No doubt stainless steel products are bit expensive than the normal ones but it is also a fact that these are better choice to avoid excessive burns, rust and marks. Moreover, stainless steel items look fresh and brand new even after excessive use. So, do not think of initial investment, just remember that these items will better assist you while cooking and frying various food items.

Second important thing to consider is that a good fryer is always easy to maintain and clean. Make it sure that the item you are going to purchase has removable parts and it should be dishwasher friendly item. Actually it is really a big and difficult deal to scrub the pan for several hours after cooking. So, your fryer should be easy to clean.

Temperature control is also important thing to consider. This generally means that your deep fryer should be smart enough to run with different temperature demands and requirements. Actually, each and every food requires varying degrees and temperatures of heat to cook. So, make it sure that the thermostat of your deep fryer is adjustable according to various requirements. Furthermore, exteriors of your fryer should be safe enough to assist in smooth cooking and handling.

Source by Farah N

Does Instinct Play a Role in Human Learning?

At some point in the evolution of humanity we began to go beyond the need to learn basic survival skills towards considering the issue of just how humans actually learned things. In a world in which close contact with a variety of animal species was common, did early theorists wonder about differences in the way animals learn and the way humans learn?

Since even today we look to other species of animals for insight into much of what governs our own well-being, it is likely that early ponderers of the learning question looked to how animals learned.

Since animals did not appear to have language with which to transmit knowledge, we can speculate our early ancestors may have assumed animals had some in-born capacity to respond to certain environmental events without having been shown what to do by another animal.

Birthing is a case in point. Imagine an early human family observing an early form of the dog as the birthing process began. There is no other dog around to tell the female what to do. It simply knows what to do. Today, anyone who has experience the joy of watching a family pet give birth can attest to the marvel of instinctual behavior. The mother dog has not read a book or attended a lecture on the need to free the puppy from the protective sac or to bite off the cord. The dog just does it.

That is instinctual behavior. Today a dictionary definition of instinct is an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.

One can only wonder what early humans thought about the role of instinct in human learning, but modern man by and large rejects the notion of a variety of instinctual responses in human behavior. However, there are those who argue the opposite point of view. Some believe the capacity for language development is innate, meaning instinctual.

Perhaps continued advances in brain-based learning research will shed some new light on the debate. We can return to the example of giving birth to pose an interesting question.

Although it would be impossible to prove with an experiment, it is not likely that a contemporary female left to her own devices would know what to do when giving birth. Birthing is something mothers teach their daughters, having learned from their own mothers.

However, what of pre-hominids and even early hominids? It is likely that birthing was instinctual in those early groups. What happened to that instinct? At what point did human females lose the ability to act on instinct and instead require a learning process on what to do at birth?

At some level one wonders if mankind’s need to justify our species as not only different from other species but also vastly superior is at the heart of the argument made that little of human behavior is instinctual. Some scientists are only willing to acknowledge a few basic reflexes while others use terms like “drives” instead of acknowledging instincts.

Others, however, are raising interesting questions about hidden instincts deep within the recesses of our brains. Perhaps the most interesting is the “curiosity drive.” Who knows? One day we may learn that the desire to learn is itself innate.

Source by Bryan West Ph.D.