What is Hazardous Cargo?

Every day of the week, year-round, thousands of large trucks like 18-wheelers transport millions of pounds of stuff across the country. They ensure that people receive mail and that fruits and vegetables reach the grocery stores where so many people get their food. Something else they transport is hazardous cargo.

Hazardous cargo is any cargo made of a hazardous material. A hazardous material is any item or agent (biological, chemical, physical) which has the potential and likelihood of causing harm to humans, animals, or environment if not handled properly. It can do this on its own or through interaction with other factors.

There is an entire profession dedicated to handling hazardous materials properly. Hazardous materials professionals are responsible for and properly qualified to manage these materials. This includes managing and advising other managers on hazardous materials during their entire life cycle. This goes from process planning and development of new products through manufacturing, distribution, use, disposal, cleanup, and remediation.

Hazardous materials are defined and regulated in the United States by laws and regulations. These regulations are administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Each organization has its own definition of what a hazardous material is.

OSHA has a definition of “hazardous material” that includes any substance or chemical which is a “health hazard” or “physical hazard.” This includes chemicals that are carcinogens, toxic agents, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers. It also includes agents which act on the hematopoietic system and chemicals that damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Combustible, explosive, flammable, oxidizers, pyrophorics, unstable-reactive or water-reactive chemicals are all also included. Basically, OSHA has the broadest definition of hazardous as they are dealing with the safety of workers everywhere rather than a specific field.

The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted OSHA’s definition but added any item or chemical which can damage to people, plants, or animals when it is released by spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, escaping, leaching, injecting, dumping, or disposing of the substance into the environment. Their list of hazards contains over 350 hazardous and extremely hazardous materials.

The Department of Transportation defines a hazardous material as any item or chemical which is a risk to public safety or to the environment when it is being transported or moved. These items are regulated under the Hazardous Materials Regulations, International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, the Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Air Transport Association, the Technical Instructions of the International Civil Aviation Organization, the United States Air Force Joint Manual, Preparing Hazardous Materials for Military Air Shipments.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates items or chemicals which are a “special nuclear source” or by-product materials or radioactive substances from “special nuclear sources.”

For more information on the hazards of hazardous materials in transportation, please visit http://www.truckaccident-lawyers.com.

Source by Joseph Devine

Sandra Bridewell


Sandra Camille (Powers) Bridewell, was born, April 4, 1944. She was adopted as a child by Arthur and Camille Powers of Sedalia, Missouri. She was known primarily as a destructive con-artist, as, over the course of more than 3 decades, the woman who became known as the “Black Widow”, deceived both lovers and friends for hundreds of thousands of dollars. She is also suspected of being a part of, atleast one of her husbands and also a close friend death.

It all started in a disconcerting and traumatic childhood. Reports indicate, that at the age of 3, her adoptive mother, Camille, was killed in a car-accident. Bridewell’s father, Arthur, who both managed and commanded a Dr.Pepper bottling factory, eventually re-married, and the family were re-located to Oak Cliff, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. He resigned from his previous position and found new employment, becoming a cemetery plot salesman.

Bridewell discovered that adjusting to her new surroundings was not the problem, the problem was adjusting to her new stepmother Doris. The two of them were continuosly fighting, whilst Bridewell would protest that her stepmother regulary locked her inside a closet, refused to send out birthday party invitations and enjoy telling her that nobody wanted her.

Bridewell graduated high school in the year of 1962. As a high school student, she would rarely date, however after graduation, she soon began dating a series of different men. She was extreamly seductive, many of the men became totally smitten with, what a later friend would describe as, “her, ‘lady-like’, ‘poor-helpless-me’ routine”. Bridewell attended junior college for a single year, it seems Bridewell had already decided her intentions, she wanted to marry into money.


For Sandra to achieve her intentions, she began living a life, littered with deception and deceit. She would tell some friends, that both of her adoptive parents were killed. She would tell some others she was daughter to Irish aristocrats. The most common deceit that she used with regularity, was the “West Point Boyfriend”, this entailed the story of a boyfriend who shot himself while she sat next to him in a car.

Despite Sandra’s continuous deceptive nature, she was able to convince many people to believe her lies, especially men. Many stories from these men, were very similar and followed a general theme, recalling, “She had a way” and, “Men, just sort of… were fascinated with her”. Sandra through the course of her life, would intensify the deception and lived with many different aliases.

There were many victims, from her guiltless deceit. One such victim, was the up-shot dentist, David Stegall, who was schooled in Los Angeles and was a regular dentist for high-status Hollywood stars. Stegall had a compulsion towards, Cadillacs, large homes and pretty women. Sandra noticed something she liked about Stegall, and by the year 1967 she had married him. Within the first few years after the marriage, the couple began to raise a family, and soon had 3 daughters, Britt, Kathryn and Emily. The family enjoyed a high-class lifestyle and lived in a most desirable Dallas neighbourhood.

Sandra’s taste and passion for the finer things were even more profound than her husbands, and desite the massive salary and reputation of Stegall, Sandra’s tastes were beginning to strain and taking the family to the brink. Sandra was a connoisseur of many things, she loved beautiful artwork and expensive furnishings. By the year 1974, the couple’s marriage was in turmoil and the family was in severe debt, forcing Stegall to loan a substantial sum of money from his father to pay off a number of the hefty bills.

By February 1975, the situation had over-come Stegall, and he tried to commit suicide. Reports indicate that Sandra discovered a distressed Stegall closed in a closet with a gun pointed at his head. Sandra was then able to persuade Stegall to re-consider. However this did not change Stegall for the long-term, and a few weeks later he was discovered dead. Lying on in his bed with both wrists open and a.22 caliber gunshot wound through his head.

Sandra swiftly took action towards straightening her financial situation. This started with the collection of her husband’s life insurance policy, sold the lat Stegall’s practice and began dating other wealthy men. After a mere 3 years of her husband’s death, Sandra was married again, this time to well-known Dallas based developer, Bobby Bridewell.

Soon after the wedding Bridewell took the decision to adopt Sandra’s 3 daughters and the family made their’ home in the fancy Dallas neighbourhood of Highland Park. However in 1980, life changed and in dramatic and tragic twist Bridwell was diagnosed with cancer. Sandra found the diagnosis extremely painful, as she continued her life in her usual way, with an elemental grieving. During her husbands battle with the illness, Sandra decided to have the family’s entire household remodelled, forcing the weakening Bridewell to move into a friend’s house. Bridewell after a 2 year struggle, finally succumbed to his diagnoses and died.

The impact of Bridewell’s death was hard-felt by Sandra. At least for the short-term, she was able to gain support and hope, in the friendship of Bridewell’s oncologist, Dr’ John Bradwell and his wife Betsy. In the beginning the couple were more than happy and open to offer support to their friend. Sandra over-time, began visiting the Bagwell household with more frequent persistence. Whilst the doctor and his wife were enjoying a vacation in New Mexico, Sandra went as far as to show up unannounced. Her ever increasing requests were frequented with pleads of childcare and harassment through phone calls.

The Bagwell’s soon decided upon action, and attempted to extricate themselves from the relationship with Sandra. Sandra however would not allow it. In June 1982, she made a phone call to Betsy, and requested she take her to the hospital, so she could rent a car as her’s wouldn’t start. Betsy supplicated and would take Sandra to the hospital, and then back to the Church were Sandra was previously parked so she could retrieve her license, which she claimed on arrival, had been forgotten.

The exact details of the encounter remain shrouded in mystery. What is understood, is that on June 16, 1982, authorities discovered the 40-year old Mrs. Bagwell, dead in her Mercedes i the airport parking lot. There was a large gunshot wound in her head, and a stolen.22 caliber pistol held in her right hand. when the verdict was given, it was concluded as a suicide.

Despite the verdict, there was still many questions unanswered. The police were aware that Sandra was the last person to have seen Betsy alive. Questions emerged about the death, these included the absence of a suicide note. The police however refused to re-examine the case and it remained closed.

As was so accustomed to Sandra, she non-chalantly continued with her life. As of June 1984, another man had fallen into her clutches. The victim, a good-looking 29 year-old, Alan Rehrig, had just moved to Dallas to begin work for a mortgage company. Sandra was conversing around her yard, when Rehrig, searching for a place he could call home, happened to pass by in his car. Pulling his Ford Bronco over to the side of the road, he asked Sandra if she knew of any apartments to move into. She admitted she did not, instead, agreeing to help him out.

Within just a few short weeks the pair became inseparable. Rehrig was extremely fond of Sandra’s 3 daughters, who, at their’ mother’s calling would announce themselves upon an unsuspecting Rehrig, whilst he was busy working at his office. Sandra, by the fall of 1984, had some unexpected news for Rehrig and delivered the news that she was pregnant with twins. This situation was even more curious for one important reason, 7 years previous Sandra underwent a successful hysterectomy. This was yet more deceit from Sandra, feeling that as she gained some weight around her stomach, that she could lie effectively. There were of course more lies, lies including her age, telling Rehrig she was 36, when she was in fact 41.

A trustworthy Rehrig, had no reason to doubt his new girlfriend, as he still felt the were getting to know each other. Despite the intervention of friend’s to demonstrate to Rehrig the speed at which his life was changing, he was also in love, and, December 1984, Sandra Bridewell and Alan Rehrig became husband and wife.

There was always the awareness to Sandra, that the pregnancy lie could only take her so far. With, Rehrig committed entirely to his wife, Sandra was able to easily change the story. So, in February 1985, she made a phone call to her husband and told him the unfortunate news that she had a miscarriage.

The news was devastating to Rehrig and the marriage began to suffer as a result. Like her previous two husbands, Rehrig was beginning to realise that his wife a pallet for expensive tastes. She would push him to make more and more money, and made him take out a big life insurance policy. Friend’s recall how Rehrig complained of Sandra’s habits, as she spent $20,000 a month on clothes, food and travel.

November 1985, and the couple separated. Rehrig was convinced he had to end the relationship with Sandra and moved into a friend’s home. The two of them, were separated for a period of several weeks and they didn’t so much as set eyes upon each other. Then in early December, Sandra phoned Rehrig and arranged a meeting at a storage facility at which the two had stored some items.

The true happenings of what ensued over the next several hours have never been determined. What is understood is, Rehrig was located slumped over in his Bronco in Oklahoma. The were vast gunshot wounds to both the head and the chest. It was also determined that Rehrig has in fact been driven all the way to Oklahoma. The death of Rehrig was heavily scrutinised, Sandra was suspected of his murder, however nothing could be pinned on the woman who had become known around Dallas as the, “Black Widow”. Her demeanor under interrogation could be described as coy, almost playful. There was then a total switch in behaviour from the “Black Widow”, and she became completely uncooperative, refusing anyone to talk to both her and her daughters.

If there was any grief towards her husbands death, then it was being hidden well. Sandra, was scrimping on funeral expenses, selecting the most in-expensive casket possible for Rehrig and then convincing her friends to cover the burial costs. On the day of the service, she arrived late, dressed head to foot in a rich mink coat. This was an affordable expense, Rehrig’s death had provided her with a $220,000 life insurance claim, dropped straight into her bank account.

Sandra’s reputation however was in tatters. A popular local magazine, detailing Sandra’s curious past, and recounting her behaviour was to serve to this. Sandra was soon to leave Dallas for good, she re-located herself and her family to the San Francisco area. Sandra still contained the same charm and engaged it upon Marin County, she soon began dating a gaggle of wealthy men, who were sympathetic towards her past story, this story would often incorporate the use of a trust fund that she was about to be receiving and her non-restrained sexual inhibition. One of the men loaned her $23,000., whilst another was suckered into parting with $70,000, which he pulled up through a pension. Neither of the men received a single penny of their loans back, even though they took their’ claims to court. Soon, the same and similar stories that had surrounded Sandra in Dallas, began to appear in San Francisco.

By the early 1990′s, Sandra changed her name and was now known as Camille Bridewell. She had left California, and moved to Boston, where she took up residence with a boyfriend. She was also a resident in Connecticut and Hawaii. Despite the change of addresses, the same meanness still stewed in her underbelly. She would now steal the Social Security numbers of other people, she would take out credit cards, and rack up huge purchases, without an intent to ever pay the money back. she was so malicious in her actions, that she even destroyed the credit of her daughters.

As the millennium came around, Sandra was now middle aged, and shifted from sexuality to religion, as to draw her victims closer. The basis of her stories would now involve the invention of stories such as, she was a missionary who had traveled the world and work with orphans. As usual she was very persuasive and had a way to make people submit to her wants. She then befriended a couple who owned and managed a motel in the state of Alabama. Despite the fact that she was unable to even pay for a room, she was receiving food and money from the cople.

she continued with the missionary story, and as she moved herself to Atlanta, she would change her name slightly, from Bridewell to Bridwell. She then convinced a woman she met at church to split with the cost of an expensive condo rental. After a little time passed, Bridwell’s new housemate, found she was paying for everything, as Sandra claimed she was waiting for a large sum of money to be delivered form her trust fund.

As 2006 ensued, Sandra surfaced in North Carolina, at a new church and changed her name to Camille Bowers. Later that year, in September, she moved herself in with Sue Moseley, a 77 year old woman, residing in a million dollar home on the Carloina coast. Sandra struck up a deal with the son, Jim, that in return for the management of the housekeeping, she would receive free room and board.

She began to build a respectable reputation around the local community, and spoke several times at a local women’s club. Sandra then began the process of acquiring the finances of the Moseley’s. She gathered tax records, collected her Social Security payments into a separate account, siphoned off mortgage money, created credit charges and used Mosele’s bank account to fund her personal expenses, including spa treatments and expensive shoes.

Jim soon became suspicious of the new housekeeper, and early in 2007, he stumbled upon a length newspaper story in a Dallas publication, chronicling the exploits of her life. Jim, working alongside the police, as a front man in a sting, aided the arrest of the “Black Widow”, on 2nd March 2007 in a cafe in Charlotte, North Carolina.


The story of Sandra Bridewell culminates with numerous charges under her name. She was committed of, identity fraud, fraud, mail theft and Social Security fraud. After the arrest and the heavy publicity, the police took a renewed interest in the death of Rehrig and the police of Oklahoma City, pour more resources and more manpower towards the case.

February 2008, and Sandra Camille Powers, pleads guilty to one count of identity theft, later the same month she was formally sentenced by the judge. The “Black Widow”, had left a lasting impact and trail of destruction wherever she went, leaving a trail of victims desperate for her sentencing. When justice was finally insued, she was ordered to pay a $250,000 fine,a dn pay more than $1,600 dollars in restitution to the Moseley family.

Source by Matthew A Black

Importance of Technology in Business

Technology plays a vital role in business. Over the years businesses have become dependent on technology so much so that if we were to take away that technology virtually all business operations around the globe would come to a grinding halt. Almost all businesses and industries around the world are using computers ranging from the most basic to the most complex of operations.

Technology played a key role in the growth of commerce and trade around the world. It is true that we have been doing business since time immemorial, long before there were computers; starting from the simple concept of barter trade when the concept of a currency was not yet introduced but trade and commerce was still slow up until the point when the computer revolution changed everything. Almost all businesses are dependent on technology on all levels from research and development, production and all the way to delivery. Small to large scale enterprises depend on computers to help them with their business needs ranging from Point of Sales systems, information management systems capable of handling all kinds of information such as employee profile, client profile, accounting and tracking, automation systems for use in large scale production of commodities, package sorting, assembly lines, all the way to marketing and communications. It doesn’t end there, all these commodities also need to be transported by sea, land, and air. Just to transport your commodities by land already requires the use of multiple systems to allow for fast, efficient and safe transportation of commodities.

Without this technology the idea of globalization wouldn’t have become a reality. Now all enterprises have the potential to go international through the use of the internet. If your business has a website, that marketing tool will allow your business to reach clients across thousands of miles with just a click of a button. This would not be possible without the internet. Technology allowed businesses to grow and expand in ways never thought possible.

The role that technology plays for the business sector cannot be taken for granted. If we were to take away that technology trade and commerce around the world will come to a standstill and the global economy would collapse. It is nearly impossible for one to conduct business without the aid of technology in one form or another. Almost every aspect of business is heavily influenced by technology. Technology has become very important that it has become a huge industry itself from computer hardware manufacturing, to software design and development, and robotics. Technology has become a billion dollar industry for a number of individuals.

The next time you browse a website to purchase or swipe a credit card to pay for something you just bought, try to imagine how that particular purchase would have happened if it were to take place without the aid of modern technology. That could prove to be a bit difficult to imagine. Without all the technology that we are enjoying now it would be like living in the 60’s again. No computers, no cellular phones, no internet. That is how important technology is in business.

Source by Neoko Cortwell

Infinity Edge Swimming Pools and Their Cost

 Infinity pools are also known as vanishing edge or negative edge pools. They have one or more sides where the pool edge terminates in a weir that is 15 to 25 mm lower than the median pool water level. The water cascades over the weir into a collection trough that runs along beneath the whole length of the weir. The effect when viewed by a bather in the pool is very dramatic when the edge appears to merge with sea in the background or even the sky if the pool is located high up on a hillside. 

A properly designed infinity edge pool has two circulation systems. The infinity edge system is only designed to run when the pool is being used and consists of a circulation system that takes water from the collection trough, filters it and returns it to the main pool. The other system works in exactly the same way as a conventional pool, filtration and heating circulation system except that the ugly conventional skimmers are not required and the water circulates back through the pump via the drain in the pool floor. 

The additional cost of an infinity edge pool arises mainly from the provision of:- 

  • The collection trough that acts as a buffer tank
  • The water-proofing of the weir and the collection trough
  • The large capacity infinity edge circulation pump and filter
  •  The electronic autofill sensor in the collection trough

The automatic level sensor / filling device is needed to ensure there is enough water in the system to prime the edge pump and to compensate for any waves sent over the weir by bathers and rainwater. For a 12 x 6 metre pool with one infinity edge the additional cost should be in the 8 to 10,000 Euros range excluding any taxes. The trough and autofill, edge filtration system and the additional water proofing costs will each amount to about one third of this or about 3,000 Euros each. The water-proofing may seem to be costly but a conventional factory made PVC liner is not suitable for an infinity edge pool and needs to be replaced by a PVC “liner armee” system that involves cutting and welding the PVC liner on site. 

There is a very interesting alternative to infinity edge pools that is beginning to be sold into the French pool market where Bluepools operates. These are called mirror pools and they are an exciting option when the views from a garden are less than spectacular. In a mirror pool the infinity edge is taken around the entire perimeter of the swimming pool and the weir is drained by a perimeter trough that is much smaller than the collection trough of an infinity pool. The perimeter trough is drained by a network of gravity fed downpipes that take the water to a central collection tank that provides the buffer water storage normally provided by the collection trough in a conventional infinity pool. The cost of a mirror pool will be a little more than the cost of an infinity pool of the same size with the infinity edge along one long side. 

The additional operating costs of either an infinity or mirror pool will not be that high because the big pump needed to run the infinity edge system will only operate when the pool is in use. The extra costs will be incurred from:- 

  • The power the pump uses
  •  The cost of the water that is lost due to evaporation from the flow over the weir
  •  The cost of replacing the heat loss caused by evaporation
  • The heat required for the water replacing the evaporated water 

The total additional operating cost is difficult to assess accurately because it does depend on so many variables but it will certainly be less than the cost of heating a conventional pool of the same size using a heat pump. 

The development of infinity pools has coincided with the increase in a new trend towards designer pools that are now often seen at exclusive properties and on magazine covers. Many people have property in an ideal location for the installation of an infinity edge pool even more have gardens that would benefit from a mirror pool and I hope this article encourages the development of both. 

Copyright Bluepools SARL


Source by Will Witt

Teaching – Seven Uniquenesses of the Teaching Profession

No One Can Do What You Do?

Who can do what you do? The reason a shortage exists in the field of teaching is simply because few can do what you do. The teaching profession is profoundly unique. In some areas of the country, a shortage is impacted by economics; other places are effected by geography and weather. For the most part, metropolitan cities have fewer issues in recruiting teachers than smaller, less populous locations. Nonetheless, the field of teaching is unique and shortages prove that few have the calling and desire to do what more than 3.1 million public and private educators are already doing. Let’s look at some of the reasons teaching is unique and why shortages are common across the country, specifically in specialized subject areas such as science, math, and special education.

There are seven ways in which teachers/educators are unique professionals:

First, we’ve already established the fact that teachers embrace the field of education as a calling not as a job. Let’s face it, teaching is a very complex and demanding career that requires teachers to be managers of people, analyzers of data, and researchers of best practices and instructional methodologies-and these skills are utilized each day. In any other major profession that required the same unique qualifications, teachers would make significantly more money. Undoubtedly, the salaries for teachers must be reexamined and adjusted to reflect the uniqueness of the profession and provide balanced scales for all teachers, whether they work in a big city or a small town or country hamlet.

Second, teachers are also unique because the profession is now driven by so much data. Teachers must now be statisticians and researchers, fully accountable in some form or fashion for managing data in the areas of assessment, attendance, graduation rates, discipline percentages, and gifted and special education progress. The administrative responsibilities of the teacher have definitely increased, but the resources necessary to make the management of these duties efficient are minimal. The new demand for data is needed, and critical to enhancing results, but resources are likewise needed to help teachers be effective and efficient in collecting, examining, and utilizing the data.

Third, teachers are required to be learning and behavioral specialists and to be able to apply differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is a newly celebrated philosophy, and a mandate for all teachers, that requires teachers to find effective teaching strategies that will meet the needs of students with different learning styles, all in the same classroom at the same time. Teachers must, then, be competent and active in enlisting the unique resources and skills necessary to meet the needs of kinesthetic, visual, and auditory learning styles. Additionally, the special challenges of addressing emotional behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, and attention deficit problems-all in the same classroom-broaden the gap between teachers and managers. Today’s teachers are practitioners, researchers, and change agents; but, none of these unique skills are recognized or rewarded.

Fourth, continuing on the same theme, teachers must work with every child, despite the challenges of that child. In nearly every other profession, management is able to pick out the bad product or the poor employee so that productivity and quality can be increased. Educators do not have that same luxury. Instead, public education demands that every child be given the resources and opportunity to succeed. This includes those students who truly want to learn and will become good “products” and those students who get energized from wreaking havoc and chaos in school by fighting, dealing drugs, taking part in gang activity, or constantly disrupting classes.

Instead of weeding out the bad students, educators are required to manage all situations, to provide alternatives to parents, and to somehow effectively guide troubled students through the educational process. And teachers realize that they must do so, regardless of social and economic situations and, in some cases, the lack of positive parental guidance that might influence the behavior of the student. What becomes most frustrating is recognizing that, if these challenging students refuse the positive alternatives, they may end up dead, in jail, or in a hospital or wallowing in a continuing cycle of poverty. No one gets into teaching to celebrate such a potential loss of lives and potential. Teachers get into the business to change and enhance lives-uniquely, and one by one, as needed.

Fifth, teachers are unique because the line of accountability in education has many levels and tangents. This accountability is not necessarily a bad thing, but it has added to the complexity of teaching. In one way or another, teachers are impacted by the federal government, a state department of education, the local school district, and administration at their school. What does this mean for teachers? It means that the results of classroom practices go far beyond the classroom, students, parents, and principals. I can’t name another career field that has as many accountability variables and levels as does the field of public education. As a teacher-educator, be aware that your individual results in the classroom are data and will be analyzed as data and that those results will be evaluated in ways that are unique to the field of education. Your successes or failures in the classroom, as reflected in the data, will impact your longevity in the field of education.

Sixth, educators are unique in that no other professional group manages so many people and is so responsible for individual progress. Teachers work with up to one hundred and eighty students or more each day and are required to ensure that each of those students succeeds academically. Young people, from the ages of four to twenty, are instructed, counseled, directed, nurtured, motivated, inspired, and coached by teachers-a cycle that continues until high school graduation, in best-case scenarios.

You may be surprised to know that children spend more time at school than they do awake at home and that children are influenced by more adults in school than in any other social circle. That makes the public school system the single most influential force on children-more so even than church. Teaching, then, is a unique career that is faced with high liability and tremendous responsibility-because real lives are dependent on competent and professional adults. These demands are tremendous, and very few people can meet them successfully.

Lastly, teaching is unique because it is the only profession where the federal government has mandated absolute perfection. Specifically, the No Child Left Behind Act requires that all children-that’s 100 percent-reach proficiency on state level assessments. Between the lines, this legislation essentially requires teachers to provide effective and rigorous instruction, which will hopefully translate into providing the necessary skills and information sets so that students can be literate and competent. However, the mandate that all students be made to pass assessments is largely unrealistic because of unforeseen and calculable variables that prohibit the attainment of such a goal. Yes, the goal is lofty, but it is worthy. The expectation that teachers teach is warranted. At the end of the day, we all know that students must be able to think and apply their knowledge in real life. After all, primary and secondary schooling is a training ground with the ultimate goal of preparing young people to successfully navigate college, a profession, and the world of adults. But the attainment of such an idealistic goal as what is outlined in No Child Left Behind creates an all-consuming stress that has hurt and will continue to hurt the teaching profession if not taken in stride.

As this federal policy stands, I expect it to cause numerous educators to leave the profession-not one scientist or researcher would ever purport to achieve 100 percent accuracy on any research or experiment due to variables. Even 99.9 percent acknowledges the influence of some variables, even if it is only 0.1 percent. Yet, in the world of education, teachers must live with and comply to that unrealistic federal mandate or find a new line of business, which could be extremely detrimental to hundreds of districts across the country.

So, yes, teaching is unique, and it requires educators to be multi-faceted and multi-talented. It is my strong belief that very few professions demand what is required of teachers in the public sector. The demands are not necessarily bad, but they are indications of the complex nature of the teaching profession. Those who are cut out for this unique profession are called, often naturally skilled or highly and thoroughly trained, and committed to success. And, no, not everyone is cut out for a career in the most challenging occupation on the planet. It also requires an awareness of self. And, it is not for the weary. No, not everyone can do what teachers do. Join the movement – The Teachers Movement and make a difference.

Source by Graysen Walles

Mortgage Promissory Note, Allonge, And Mortgage Foreclosure Help

A mortgage promissory note is a promise to pay. If you don’t pay, then your home or commercial property could go into foreclosure where the Lender, bank servicer, trustee, or investor can use questionable tactics to get your property. There is a mortgage that goes along with the note, a contract in real estate. The Bank Lender created both the note and mortgage for their benefit. You can use their own promissory note and mortgage contract against them to regain your home or property. Let’s talk about the note first.

The note on the last page should have an allonge or allonges to prove a true sale(s) to a Trust, another bank, or investor each and every time the note with the mortgage is sold, assigned, or transferred. An allonge is an illegal alteration of an incomplete note. An allonge in blank, without the assignee signing it is illegal as per the Uniform Commercial Code, UCC, Federal code of laws that is controlling the world and the lender’s Pooling and Servicing Agreement that controls the Trust that your note and mortgage are supposed to be in.

When the lender assigns, transfers, or sells the note and mortgage, they become securitized and are sold multiple times to investors or into a trust for multiple streams of income for the lender. Within 30 days of each assignment, transfer, or sell, the assignment of true sale must be recorded under States’ statute. The dates of the allonge endorsement(s) and the notarized assignment(s) must match to prove true sales before a foreclosure can legally occur.

In addition to other disclosures required by TILA, 15 U.S.C. ยง1641(f)(2), Liability of assignees, not later than 30 days after the date on which a mortgage loan, including mortgage and note, is sold or otherwise transferred or assigned to a third party, the creditor that is the new owner or assignee of the debt shall notify the borrower in writing of such transfer, including-

(A) the identity, address, telephone number of the new creditor;

(B) the date of transfer;

(C) how to reach an agent or party having authority to act on behalf of the

new creditor;

(D) the location of the place where transfer of ownership of the debt is

recorded; and

(E) any other relevant information regarding the new creditor.

This requirement of law is quite useful in a case when you have authoritative documentation that there are other holders of the note that are not the same as the party who claims the right in a mortgage foreclosure action.

It can be the catalyst to force the court to make the foreclosure attorney to produce the note titled to them and other evidences of ownership of the loan since it is a violation of Federal and State law not to. True fraud evidence becomes a very useful plank in your quiet title law suit to oppose and stop foreclosure.

In most foreclosure cases, the judge does not know the law governing the real estate mortgage and note under the Uniformed Commercial Code of Federal Laws, UCC, Articles 3, 8, and 9. Otherwise, the judge would know that bank securitization is unlawful and illegal and the homeowner would win against the banks every time. We surveyed 10 judges in the State of Florida in 10 different counties and only one judge knew what bank mortgage securitization actually is and how it affected mortgage foreclosure cases.

The mortgage is created to perfect the note. There are no such words in Black’s Law dictionary as a security instrument. It is a made up terminology by the banking industry to take your money and property. The mortgage is the contract with many legal flaws. Nowhere does it say that the note and mortgage must be paid by the borrower.

Source by David A Young

Forensic Document Analysis – Looking for Clues in Typewritten Documents

Not only do the ink from a pen and the type of paper provide clues to forensic document analysts about the origin of a questionable document, many different kinds of mechanical devices do also. Copiers, printers, and typewriters many times leave distinctive markings on the typed or copied document. These markings may show that a particular piece of paper has been altered. Such alterations can help forensic document examiners determine exactly which machine created the questioned document.

In this article, I will attempt to explain what forensic document analysts look for when they come across a printed document that is used in the commission of a crime.

If they are not using pen or pencil and paper, perpetrators often use typewriters to write letters of intimidation or ransom notes. The offenders frequently have the false sense of security that committing such an act makes the letter or note untraceable. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Whenever a typewriter is used to create a questionable document, the forensic document analyst tries to:

  • Find out the make and model of the typewriter
  • Compare the note with a suspect typewriter

Determining the make and model of a typewriter means that the forensic document analyst must have access to a list of typefaces used in different models of new and old typewriters. Many typewriter manufacturers use either pica or elite typefaces. However, the size, shape, and style of the letter are different, making the analyst’s job difficult. After careful examination of a typed document, the analyst may be able to find out the make and model of the typewriter that created it. Doing so may help shorten the list of exact machines that created the document. On the downside, today’s printers may use daisy-wheel, ink-jet, dot-matrix, or laser printing technologies. These printers vary slightly such that document analysts many times can not discern one from another.

To find out whether a particular typewriting machine created a questionable document, forensic document analysts search for unique characteristics that can involve misaligned or damaged letters, inconsistent spacing before or after certain letters, and inconsistencies in the pressure applied to the page by some letters. For instance, particular letters can have grooves or spurs that are imprinted on a piece of paper. These letters can also slant toward one side or print slightly higher or lower than the rest of the letters on the page. Such abnormalities can be compared to a sample page taken from a suspect typewriter and thus provide powerful individualizing qualities that are unique only to that typewriter.

To make comparisons between a questioned document and a particular typewriter, the forensic document analyst types up a comparison document taken from the suspect typewriter. While doing this, the analyst uses a ribbon that is similar in type and condition to the one used to create the original document. The reason for this is that a worn ribbon will show minor abnormalities in the typeface. On the other hand, a brand new ribbon containing fresh ink may hide them.

Typewriting machines that use ribbons can help the forensic document analyst match a particular typewriter to the document in question. If a typewriting machine uses a single-pass ribbon, forensic scientists can simply read the message from the ribbon itself provided that the ribbon is still in the machine. Even if the ribbon has been used for several passes, criminal investigators can still retrieve parts of the message from the ribbon.

Suppose a crook used the original typewriter to include an extra line or a paragraph to a document? How does the forensic document examiner determine that his occurred? If the typeface is identical in both the original text and the added-on text, it is difficult for the examiner to determine if an alteration occurred. However, when the paper is inserted back into a typewriter for the second time, the alignment many times is off. Taking advantage of this fact, the examiner puts a specially made glass plate with an etched grid pattern on top of the page. By doing so, he can easily view any inconsistencies in the alignment of the added lines and paragraphs.

Source by Fabiola Castillo

The Naked Truth About Errors and Omissions Insurance in the World of Indie Film Distribution

Errors and Omissions Insurance (E & O Insurance) is something every movie producer needs if they want to sign a movie distribution deal.

I’m not an entertainment attorney or insurance salesperson, but Errors and Omissions Insurance protects you and the movie distributor you sign a deal with from different lawsuits common in the entertainment business.

These include allegations of breach of contract, copyright infringement, defamation or degrading of products (showing trademarks on camera), invasion of privacy, infringement on title, slogan and lots of other nasty legal salvos.

It’s an insurance policy that protects a movie producer and movie distributor’s ass in the course of doing business in the entertainment industry.

Errors and Omissions Insurance doesn’t deal with the creative side of making movies, so lots of times some indie movie producers don’t plan for it in their movie budgets.

But if you want to sell your show to a movie distributor you’ll have to learn what it’s all about at some point.

That’s unless you’re movie distribution plan is using your own blog to sell digital downloads or DVDs online or hitting the streets with copies in the trunk of your hybrid vehicle.

I know more than a few indie filmmakers that make decent money selling movies that way without ever having to worry about the cost of an Errors and Omissions Insurance.

I respect their energy and push to get out there to sell their movies directly online or in person through all sorts of ways. That’s a post on self-distribution left for another day.

The Catch-22 with Errors and Omissions Insurance has to do with dealing with movie distributors.

Every distribution deal coproducer Tim “Timbo” Beachum and I have been involved with from selling indie movies to reality programs has involved E & O Insurance.

After you finish your movie odds are you’re going to want to land meaningful distribution for it.

That means working with a movie distributor to get released by mainstream retail outlets domestically and internationally in every medium possible.

Movie distribution deals for indie cinema usually happen two ways. A movie is screened at different film festivals, gets the attention of distributor and a film distribution agreement is offered to acquire the rights or an offer is made to buy the movie rights outright.

Or you skip the film festival circuit and contact movie distributors directly with a screener and your other marketing materials like artwork etc. If they like what they see a distribution agreement is sent your way to consider.

By this time the euphoria of making a movie has faded. You’re now dealing with the business of making movies. You have film investors you have to pay back with interest.

Even if it was your own hard-earned cash invested to produce your movie you’re going to want to be able to pay yourself back with interest.

Indie filmmakers all make movies from different financial places, personal motivations and creative needs. None of the reasons you make movies for really matters to a movie a distributor.

When you’re dealing with movie distribution agreements it’s all business. So once your film sales representative, entertainment attorney or you rep your own movie to hammer out a deal and you sign a film distribution agreement you’re going to immediately get hit with film deliverables list.

The film deliverable list can knock an unprepared filmmaker on their ass. Once again the film deliverables list is a topic left for another post.

On this movie making post we’re focusing on Errors and Omissions Insurance, which is one of the key deliverables a movie distributor requires you to meet promptly.

Like in a Hitchcock movie I mentioned Catch-22 with Errors and Omissions Insurance in the post, now it has to be used.

It always a lot cheaper to purchase your own Errors and Omissions Insurance from a reputable company than it is relying on a movie distributor to cover the cost.

The Catch-22 is that some, not all, but some movie distributors that cater to releasing indie produced films use E & O Insurance to gouge the eyes out of indie filmmakers with an inflated cost.

The movie distribution company will tell an indie filmmaker that doesn’t have Errors and Omissions Insurance not to worry. They’ll set up a policy with an insurance broker they know, pay for it and only deduct the cost from any advances or future film royalties.

Sounds good if you don’t have the money to buy an E & O Insurance policy yourself considering no money comes out of your pocket upfront. But it doesn’t feel good when you have your upfront advance or later royalty payments hit hard for E & O Insurance.

You can end up paying anywhere from a 200% to 400% mark up on the cost. Like I said not all movie distributors that cater to releasing indie films do this kind of BS, but there ones that do.

Every business has people out to screw you. Dealing directly with an agent to buy your own Errors and Omissions Insurance policy will ALWAYS SAVE YOU MONEY.

But I completely understand how it goes to finally finish a movie and end up not having a hundred bucks left in your budget to deal with the real hard costs of getting through film deliverables.

It’s a smart move in preproduction to contact companies that specialize in producer’s Errors and Omissions Insurance to compare quotes. Once you have those prices you can plug it into your budget.

I like to include it as part of the postproduction budget as a line item. It helps remind me as an indie movie producer working with a limited budget that after we wrap a movie there is still a long way to go to get through postproduction and film deliverables.

Even if you know you won’t have the money for E & O Insurance after you sign a movie distribution deal at least by knowing what policies cost you can negotiate the cost down the distributor will charge you.

This is the part I call the Catch-44. Be wary of dealing with movie distributors that won’t accept your Errors and Omissions Insurance policy.

They might have special requirements like your policy is not from a carrier licensed in their state or some other reason to decline your E & O Insurance.

If you’ve already signed a deal with them before asking if your own Errors and Omissions Insurance policy satisfies their requirements you could be in a bit of a fight.

You’ve played by the rules and saved money by buying your own E & O Insurance policy, but now you’re bumping heads on this issue. If you haven’t signed a deal move on to another distributor.

As long as your E & O Insurance policy is from a reputable company another movie distributor will honor it if they want your movie.

If you’re signed on the dotted line you might have to suck it up and bite the bullet and go with a broker recommended by the movie distributor that will usually charge a bit more than you would have paid on your own.

The insurance company doesn’t add the mark up. It’s the movie distributor adding their juice for doing you a favor covering the cost.

The truth about Errors and Omissions Insurance in the world of indie film distribution isn’t always fair or pretty, but either is life.

Source by Sid Kali

10 Reasons To Have A Barbeque Today

If you’re the sort of person that can’t wait for the good weather so that you can have a barbeque, then you won’t need any encouragement to get the charcoal out, brush off your apron, and start cooking outside.

If you take a bit of convincing, then here’s what you need to know.

  1. Weather
    Why not make the most of the good weather no matter what time of year it is. There’s nothing wrong with having a BBQ in the winter if it’s not too cold outdoors, you don’t have to wait until summer.
  2. And day of the week
    Weekday or weekend, it doesn’t matter, so why not get out of the kitchen and start cooking in the garden or the back yard instead? You don’t have to wait until Friday night, or Saturday afternoon to enjoy hot dogs.
  3. Spend time outside
    Spending time outside in the fresh air will do you the world of good, especially if you’re normally cooped in an office or shop all day. Why not make the most of the light evenings, or light your chiminea or firepit and make the most of the evening?
  4. Spend time with family and friends
    If you’re always moaning that you don’t get to spend as much time with your friends and family as you’d like to, why not invite them round for a BBQ? Whilst you’re at it, why not see if the neighbours want to come round too?
  5. Want to eat outside
    Perhaps you just want to eat outside for a change. What could be better than waiting for your steak, burgers or sausages to cook on your BBQ, whilst you sit and chat with friends?
  6. Somebody else can cook
    Perhaps you do all the cooking in the kitchen, but somebody else in charge of the barbeque. Why not see if you can persuade them to do the cooking for a change?
  7. Food you don’t normally eat
    Having a BBQ is the perfect opportunity to enjoy food and sauces that you might not normally eat. Perhaps you’ll be able to try some new marinade recipes, or have a great idea for salads.
  8. Little bit of planning is worth it
    Even if you’ve got nothing suitable for a barbeque in the fridge, freezer or cupboard, a quick trip to the shops will mean that you have everything you need. If you’re very organised, you can prepare everything in advance so there’s only the actual cooking that needs to be done when everybody arrives.
  9. Less washing up and cleaning
    When you have a BBQ, you can look forward to less washing up and cleaning, and if you’re quick enough, you can probably get your guests to help you too.
  10. Fun
    A BBQ should be a fun thing, so if you’ve had a hard time at work, or a stressful day with the children, then why not sit outside for a few hours and see if good food, and good company can make you feel better.

Now you know why you should have a BBQ, isn’t it time you did?

Source by Matthew C James

Factors Impacting Business Umbrella or Excess Insurance Rates And Coverages

A business umbrella policy is a contract that offers coverages for liability claims above and beyond limits paid by certain underlining liability policies provided by the business. The coverage goes in effect when the other underlining liability coverages terminate. The named insured in the umbrella policy is legally responsible for keeping in force particular scheduled underlining policies. Any changes in the status, terms, and conditions of the underlining policies must be reported to the insurance provider providing the Umbrella coverage.

Coverage Limits of Umbrella: The Umbrella coverage comes with limits of $1 to $5 millions. Many companies may not provide more than $5 millions. However, a number of insurance companies may offer higher limit levels.

Excess Vs Umbrella Liability Insurance: Although used interchangeably, insurance professionals think that there is a substantial distinction between Excess liability policies and Umbrella policies. In most instances, policies labeled ‘Excess Liability Insurance’ provide only extension of the same coverages provided by the underlining policies, while Umbrella policies will fill some gaps by offering coverages for losses that are not covered by the underlining policies.

Self Insured Retention or SIR: This is the amount which the insured person has to pay before the Umbrella policy kicks in for particular losses that do not have coverage under any underlining policy. For example, if your SIR is $10,000 then your Umbrella policy will pay for certain liability losses that are not covered under the underlining policies, above and beyond that amount of $10,000. SIR may be relinquished by policy amendment but the customer has to pay additional premiums.

Umbrella Underlining Insurance Policies. The following is a list of the underlining policies for Umbrella insurance policies.

  • Commercial General Liability. The types, forms, and limits of coverage are vital factors which distinguish one policy from another one.
  • Business Auto Liability Types and Limits. In addition to the limits of coverage, special attention is to be paid to the characteristics of drivers, their ages and driving record history. Also, types of trucks and radius of operations, FHWA filing requirements can all become very important factors in determining the rates of umbrella insurance.
  • Business Watercraft. The forms and limits of the watercraft policy along with people involved in operating the watercraft will affect the rates and the underwriting guidelines of the umbrella policy.
  • Workers Compensation and Employers Liability. Limits of liability and state exposure are important factors that will affect the rates of Umbrella policy.
  • Professional Liability Forms, Types and Limits
  • Liquor Liability Limits

Factors Affecting Rates and Issuing of Umbrella Insurance

Description of Operations: Umbrella insurance rates differ based on a number of factors, first of which is description of operations. No two Umbrella contracts have the same rates, due to the fact that different businesses have different risk exposures. Other issues lead to elevated risk, hence rates, of the Umbrella insurance. These factors include exposures to habitation, exposure to swimming pools, athletic and sport facilities, as well as exposure to use of liquor and live entertainment.

If there is habitation exposure, full description of that exposure becomes important; such as the number of units, construction type, age and number of stories of the building; nature and rates of occupancy, etc.

In situations where liquor is consumed, insurance companies normally worry about the size of operation, live entertainment available, safety and security provided. Offering and sponsoring sport activities such as swimming or gymnastics may mandate that the business provides to the insurance companies facts about the nature of facilities/ activities, security measures, and other risk management measures.

Searching for an Umbrella policy can be an easy task. Contacting an independent insurance agent is a good start. Independent insurance agents have access to many insurers and can provide more quality quotes at competitive prices.

Source by Edward Sneineh